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Purpose: Gene therapy (ex vivo) has recently been used as a means of delivering bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) to sites of tissue regeneration. In the present study, we investigated the effect of co-transduction of adenoviruses expressing BMP-2 and BMP-7 on osteogenesisof C2C12 cells in vitro. Methods: A replication-defective human adenovirus 5 (Ad5) containing a cDNA for BMPs in the E1 region of the virus (Ad5BMP-2 and Ad5BMP-7) was constructed by in vivo homologous recombination. Functional activity of Ad5BMP-2 and Ad5BMP-7 were evaluated in mouse stromal cells (W20-17cells). C2C12 cells are transduced with various MOI (multiplicity of infection) of Ad5BMP-2 and Ad5BMP-7 to assess most effective and stable titer. Based on this result, C2C12 cells were transduced with Ad5BMP-2 and Ad5BMP-7 alone or by combination. BMPs expression, alkaline phosphatase (ALPase) activity, cell proliferation, and mineralization were assessed. Results: Ad5BMP-2 and Ad5BMP-7 are successfully transduced to W20-17 cells, and secreted BMPs stimulated cell differentiation. Also, C2C12 cells transduced with Ad5BMPs showed expression of BMPs and increased ALPaseactivity. In all groups, cell proliferation was observed over times. At 7days, cells co-transduced with Ad5BMP-2 and Ad5BMP-7 showed lower proliferation than the others. C2C12 cells co-transduced with Ad5BMP-2 and Ad5BMP-7 had greater ALPaseactivity than that would be predicted if effect of individual Ad5BMPs were additive. Little mineralized nodule formation was detected in cells transduced with individual Ad5BMPs. In contrast, Ad5BMP-2 and Ad5BMP-7 combination stimulated mineralization after culturing for 10 days in mineralizing medium. Conclusions: Present study demonstrated that adenoviruses expressing BMPs gene successfully produced BMPs protein and these BMPs stimulated cells to be differentiated into osteoblastic cells. In addition, the osteogenic activity of Ad5BMPs can be synergistically increased by co-transduction of cells with Ad5BMP-2 and Ad5BMP-7.

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