경제적 및 농업적 장점은 유전자 변형 작물 재배면적의 증가를 가져왔다. 그러나 유전자 변형 작물의 상업적 재배전에 유전자 변형 작물의 인간건강 및 환경에 미칠 잠재적 위해성에 대한 면밀한 검토가 필수적이다. 본 연구에서는 Bt벼의 토양미생물 군집에 미치는 영향을 조사하였다. 토양화학성분을 분석한 결과, Bt벼와 낙동벼 근권토양 간 화학성분의 유의성 있는 차이는 없는 것으로 조사되었다. 재배전, 재배초기, 최고분얼기의 토양미생물 군집밀도를 조사했을 때 Bt벼 근권토양의 세균, 방선균, 진균 군집밀도는 낙동벼와 유사한 수준으로 나타났다. 시기별 DGGE 분석결과 Bt 벼 근권토양 전체미생물상은 낙동벼와 차이가 없는 것으로 조사되었다. Pyrosequencing을 통한 Bt벼와 낙동벼의 미생물 군집조성을 조사한 결과 주요 미생물상 분포에 있어서도 매우 유사한 양상을 나타내었다. 위의 결과들을 종합해볼때 Bt 재배에 따른 토양미생물상에 미치는 영향은 미미한 것으로 사료된다. 수확 후 벼 잔존물이 토양환경에 미치는 영향에 대해서는 좀 더 연구가 진행되어야 할 것이다.
The cultivation of genetically modified (GM) crops has increased due to their economic and agronomic advantages. Before commercialization of GM crops, however, we must assess the potential risks of GM crops on human health and environment. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible impact of Bt rice on the soil microbial community. Microbial communities were isolated from the rhizosphere soil cultivated with Bt rice and Nakdong, parental cultivar and were subjected to be analyzed using both culture-dependent and molecular methods. The total counts of bacteria, fungi, and actinomycetes in the rhizosphere of transgenic and conventional rice were not significantly different. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA genes revealed that the bacterial community structures during cultural periods were very similar each other. Analysis of dominant isolates in the rhizosphere cultivated with Bt and Nakdong rice showed that the dominant isolates from the soil of Bt rice and Nakdong belonged to the Proteobacteria, Cloroflexi, Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, and Acidobacteria. These results indicate that the Bt rice has no significant impact on the soil microbial communities during cultivation period. Further study remains to be investigated whether the residue of Bt rice effect on the soil environment.
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