본 논문에서는 다차원 인덱스 기반 다단계 k-NN 검색의 성능 향상 문제를 다룬다. 기존 다단계 k-NN 검색에서는 고차원 객체의 저차원 변환으로 인한 정보 손실로 k-NN 질의 결과 매우 큰 허용치(검색 범위)가 결정되어 범위 질의 결과로 많은 후보가 검색된다. 또한, 많은 후보는 후처리 과정에서 매우 많은 I/O 및 CPU 오버헤드를 발생시킨다. 본 논문에서는 이와 같은 고찰에 기반하여 범위 질의의 허용치를 줄여 후보 개수를 줄이고 이를 통해 성능을 향상시키는 방법을 제안한다. 먼저, k-NN 질의 결과로 결정된 허용치를 고차원 및 저차원 객체간 거리 비율로 강제 축소하여 범위 질의에 사용하는 허용치 축소 (근사적) 해결책을 제안한다. 다음으로, k-NN 질의 계수 k 대신 c k 를 사용하여 얻은 보다 타이트(tight)한 허용치로 범위 질의를 수행하는 계수 제어 (정확한) 해결책을 제안한다. 실제 객체 데이터를 사용하여 실험한 결과, 제안한 두 가지 해결책은 기존 다단계 k-NN 검색에 비해 후보 개수와 검색 시간 모두를 크게 향상시킨 것으로 나타났다.
In this paper, we address the problem of improving the performance of multi-step k-NN search using multi-dimensional indexes. Due to information loss by lower-dimensional transformations, existing multi-step k-NN search solutions produce a large tolerance (i.e., a large search range), and thus, incur a large number of candidates, which are retrieved by a range query. Those many candidates lead to overwhelming I/O and CPU overheads in the postprocessing step. To overcome this problem, we propose two efficient solutions that improve the search performance by reducing the tolerance of a range query, and accordingly, reducing the number of candidates. First, we propose a tolerance reduction-based (approximate) solution that forcibly decreases the tolerance, which is determined by a k-NN query on the index, by the average ratio of high- and low-dimensional distances. Second, we propose a coefficient control-based (exact) solution that uses c k instead of k in a k-NN query to obtain a tigher tolerance and performs a range query using this tigher tolerance. Experimental results show that the proposed solutions significantly reduce the number of candidates, and accordingly, improve the search performance in comparison with the existing multi-step k-NN solution.
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