Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease (PTLD) is a serious, often fatal complication after solid organ transplantation. The incidence of PTLD is greater among heart (2–13%), lung (12%) and heart/lung (5–9%) transplant recipients than among liver (2%), renal (1–3%) and bone marrow (1–2%) transplants recipients. The difference in the incidence of PTLD may be partly attributed to the higher dose of immunosuppressant therapy used for heart and lung transplantation. The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection status of the donor and recipient before a transplant, and high dose of immunosuppressive drugs are considered major risk factors. Recently, 2 cases of PTLD in a single lung and a heart-lung transplantation recipient were encountered. Both patients presented with multiple pulmonary nodules in the transplanted lung, which developed 6 months and 2 years after the transplantation, respectively. Following a transthoracic lung biopsy for diagnostic confirmation, one patient underwent chemotherapy for PTLD and the other conservative care for an accompanying viral infection. Both patients showed rapid clinical deterioration, without response to treatment, and then rapidly succumbed. Herein, our experiences are reported, with a review of the literature.
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