Recent changes in healthcare systems have changed the epidemiologic paradigms in many infectious fields including bloodstream infection (BSI). We compared clinical characteristics of community-acquired (CA), hospital-acquired (HA), and healthcare-associated (HCA) BSI. We performed a prospective nationwide multicenter surveillance study from 9 university hospitals in Korea. Total 1,605 blood isolates were collected from 2006 to 2007, and 1,144 isolates were considered true pathogens. HA-BSI accounted for 48.8%, CA-BSI for 33.2%, and HCA-BSI for 18.0%. HA-BSI and HCA-BSI were more likely to have severe comorbidities. Escherichia coli was the most common isolate in CA-BSI (47.1%) and HCA-BSI (27.2%). In contrast, Staphylococcus aureus (15.2%), coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (15.1%) were the common isolates in HA-BSI. The rate of appropriate empiric antimicrobial therapy was the highest in CA-BSI (89.0%) followed by HCA-BSI (76.4%), and HA-BSI (75.0%). The 30-day mortality rate was the highest in HA-BSI (23.0%) followed by HCA-BSI (18.4%), and CA-BSI (10.2%). High Pitt score and inappropriate empirical antibiotic therapy were the independent risk factors for mortality by multivariate analysis. In conclusion, the present data suggest that clinical features, outcome, and microbiologic features of causative pathogens vary by origin of BSI. Especially, HCA-BSI shows unique clinical characteristics, which should be considered a distinct category for more appropriate antibiotic treatment.
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