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Development of Inhibitors of $\\beta$-Amyloid Plaque Formation


Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia in the aging population and is clinically characterized by a progressive loss of cognitive abilities. Pathologically, it is defined by the appearance of senile plaques - extracellular insoluble, congophilic protein aggregates composed of amyloid $\beta$ (A$\beta$) and neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) - inyracellular lesions consisting of paired helical filaments from hyperphosphorylated cytoskeletal tau protein as described by Alois Alzheimer a century ago. These hallmarks still serve as the major criteria for a definite diagnosis of the disease. Consequently, one of the key strategy for drug development in this disease area focuses on reducing the concentration of cerebral A$\beta$ plaque by using substances that inhibit A$\beta$ fibril formation. We focused on developing inhibitors by synthesizing several kinds of aromatic molecules. The synthetic compounds were initially screened to evaluate the effective compound by tioflavin T fluorescence assay. The selected effective compounds were tested cytotoxicity and protective effect from A$\beta$-induced neuronal toxicity by cell based MTT assay with HT22 hippocampal neurons. The BBB permeability on effectors was also tested in in vitro co-culture model(HUVEC/C6 cell line). The behavior test wea carried out in mutant APP/PS1 transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease. And inhibition of A$\beta$ fibril formation by the effective compound was monitored with transmitted electron microscopic images.

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