$\require{mediawiki-texvc}$
  • 검색어에 아래의 연산자를 사용하시면 더 정확한 검색결과를 얻을 수 있습니다.
  • 검색연산자
검색연산자 기능 검색시 예
() 우선순위가 가장 높은 연산자 예1) (나노 (기계 | machine))
공백 두 개의 검색어(식)을 모두 포함하고 있는 문서 검색 예1) (나노 기계)
예2) 나노 장영실
| 두 개의 검색어(식) 중 하나 이상 포함하고 있는 문서 검색 예1) (줄기세포 | 면역)
예2) 줄기세포 | 장영실
! NOT 이후에 있는 검색어가 포함된 문서는 제외 예1) (황금 !백금)
예2) !image
* 검색어의 *란에 0개 이상의 임의의 문자가 포함된 문서 검색 예) semi*
"" 따옴표 내의 구문과 완전히 일치하는 문서만 검색 예) "Transform and Quantization"

특허 상세정보

Coal gasification and hydrogen production system and method

국가/구분 United States(US) Patent 등록
국제특허분류(IPC7판) B01J-008/00    C01B-003/02    C10J-003/00   
미국특허분류(USC) 422/189 ; 422/168 ; 422/170 ; 422/198 ; 48/077 ; 48/202 ; 48/210 ; 48/DIG.5 ; 60/039.12 ; 60/039.52 ; 429/030
출원번호 US-0775702 (1996-12-19)
발명자 / 주소
출원인 / 주소
인용정보 피인용 횟수 : 269  인용 특허 : 21
초록

A system and method generates electricity and co-produces a hydrogen flow from coal. The electricity is generated by a turbine with a topping combustor and a solid oxide fuel cell ("SOFC") reacting syngas. The syngas is produced in a coal gasifier with a portion of the compressed air from the turbine, coal, and steam. Prior to the syngas being delivered to the topping combustor and the SOFC, it is cleaned and a portion of the hydrogen in the syngas is removed to form the hydrogen flow. Additionally, a vitiated air flow from the SOFC is directed to the to...

대표
청구항

[ I claim:] [1.] A system for generating electricity and co-producing hydrogen comprising:a. electricity generating means, including a turbine-solid oxide fuel cell system a turbine compressor having a turbine and an associated compressor, and an associated topping combustor, for generating electricity and for producing a gasifier compressed air flow from the turbine compressor where the turbine is connected to an electrical generator, and where air inducted into the turbine compressor from a feed air inlet provides the gasifier compressed air flow;b. co...

이 특허에 인용된 특허 (21)

  1. Palmer Ian (Cumbria GBX) Seymour Clive M. (Cumbria GBX) Dams Robert A. J. (West Sussex GBX). Application of fuel cells to power generation systems. USP1995035401589.
  2. Koump Valentin V. (Greensburg PA). Coal gasification process. USP1982014312638.
  3. Edlund David J. (Redmond OR). Composite hydrogen separation element and module. USP1996035498278.
  4. Edlund David J. (Redmond OR). Composite hydrogen separation metal membrane. USP1995025393325.
  5. Gagnon ; Richard N.. Fuel cell fuel control system. USP1978074098960.
  6. Isenberg Arnold O. (Pittsburgh PA). Fuel cell generator containing self-supporting high gas flow solid oxide electrolyte fuel cells. USP1988034728584.
  7. Isenberg Arnold O. (Forest Hills PA). High temperature solid electrolyte fuel cell configurations and interconnections. USP1984124490444.
  8. Edlund David J. (Bend OR). Hydrogen-permeable composite metal membrane. USP1992085139541.
  9. Edlund David J. (Bend OR). Hydrogen-permeable composite metal membrane. USP1993115259870.
  10. Edlund David J. (Bend OR) Friesen Dwayne T. (Bend OR). Hydrogen-permeable composite metal membrane and uses thereof. USP1993065217506.
  11. Collins John P. (Boulder CO) Way J. Douglas (Boulder CO). Hydrogen-selective membrane. USP1995095451386.
  12. Domeracki William F. (Lake Mary FL) Lundberg Wayne L. (Pittsburgh PA) Dowdy Thomas E. (Orlando FL) Linder JoAnn M. (Clifton Park NY). Integrated gas turbine solid oxide fuel cell system. USP1995055413879.
  13. Minderman Peter A. (1681 Winchester Dr. Winter Park FL 32789) Gutkowski Gary P. (85 Kenneth Ct. Merritt Island FL 32952) Manfredi Lawrence (4309 Roanne Dr. Orlando FL 32817) King Julian V. (1125 Lane. Liquid hydrogen polygeneration system and process. USP1990064936869.
  14. Ber Jnos M. (Winchester MA). Low NOx rich-lean combustor especially useful in gas turbines. USP1989074845940.
  15. Archer David H. (Ross Township ; Allegheny County PA) Ahmed M. Mushtaq (Turtle Creek PA). Method for increasing the efficiency of gas turbine generator systems using low BTU gaseous fuels. USP1987074677829.
  16. Isenberg Arnold O. (Forest Hills Boro PA). Method of making an electrode. USP1986074597170.
  17. Beer, Janos M.; Dilmore, James A.; Vermes, Geza; Young, William E.. Multiannular swirl combustor providing particulate separation. USP1985094539918.
  18. Arundale David G. (Putney GB2). Operating flexibility in IGCC stations. USP1992065117623.
  19. Suggitt Robert M. (Wappingers Falls NY) Gilmer William N. (Patterson NY) Richter George N. (San Marino CA). Process for producing power. USP1980054202167.
  20. Isenberg, Arnold O.; Ruka, Roswell J.; Zymboly, Gregory E.. Protective interlayer for high temperature solid electrolyte electrochemical cells. USP1985104547437.
  21. Newby Richard A. (Pittsburgh PA). System and method for cleaning hot fuel gas. USP1996075540896.

이 특허를 인용한 특허 피인용횟수: 269

  1. Alizadeh Khiavi,Soheil; Roy,Surajit; Sawada,James A.. Adsorptive separation of gas streams. USP2007037189280.
  2. Valensa, Jeroen; Reinke, Michael J.; Voss, Mark G.. Annular or ring shaped fuel cell unit. USP2011098026013.
  3. Batawi, Emad El; Hickey, Darren; McElroy, James. Anode with remarkable stability under conditions of extreme fuel starvation. USP2014068748056.
  4. El Batawi, Emad. Anode with remarkable stability under conditions of extreme fuel starvation. USP2017119812714.
  5. Shurtleff, James Kevin; Patton, John Madison; Ladd, Eric J.. Apparatus and system for promoting a substantially complete reaction of an anhydrous hydride reactant. USP2009077556660.
  6. Patton, John Madison; Anderson, Howard. Apparatus, system, and method for generating a gas from solid reactant pouches. USP2013018357214.
  7. Shurtleff,James Kevin. Apparatus, system, and method for generating hydrogen. USP2008077393369.
  8. Patton, John M.; Shurtleff, J. Kevin; Ladd, Eric J.. Apparatus, system, and method for promoting a substantially complete reaction of an anhydrous hydride reactant. USP2013018357213.
  9. Pearson, Ken; Brydon, Chris; You, Eugene; Wang, Guangde. Apparatus, system, and method to manage the generation and use of hybrid electric power. USP2013018364287.
  10. Chuang, Steven S. C.. Carbon-based fuel cell. USP2015018940454.
  11. Sobolevskiy, Anatoly; Rossin, Joseph A.; Knapke, Michael J.. Catalytic process for control of NOemissions using hydrogen. USP2010057718153.
  12. Sridhar,K. R.; McElroy,James F.; Finn,John E.; Mitlitsky,Fred; Gottmann,Matthias. Co-production of hydrogen and electricity in a high temperature electrochemical system. USP2009017482078.
  13. Sridhar, K. R.; Gottmann, Matthias. Combined energy storage and fuel generation with reversible fuel cells. USP2010087781112.
  14. Sridhar,K. R.; Gottmann,Matthias. Combined energy storage and fuel generation with reversible fuel cells. USP2008047364810.
  15. Cole,Anthony Thomas; Bielamowicz,Lawrence James; Carl, Jr.,Fredrick Gordon; Coles,John Matthew; de Rouffignac,Eric Pierre; Hunsucker,Bruce Gerard; Karanikas,John Michael; Menotti,James Louis; Pratt,C. Conductor-in-conduit heat sources for in situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation. USP2006027004247.
  16. Vinegar,Harold J.; Sandberg,Chester Ledlie; Harris,Christopher Kelvin; Son,Jaime Santos; Carl, Jr.,Fredrick Gordon. Conductor-in-conduit temperature limited heaters. USP2006107121341.
  17. Miller, David N.; Savaniu, Cristian; Irvine, John T S; Armstrong, Tad. Doped scandia stabilized zirconia electrolyte compositions. USP2016129515344.
  18. Venkataraman, Swaminathan. Dual function heat exchanger for start-up humidification and facility heating in SOFC system. USP2013058435689.
  19. Keefer, Bowie G.; McLean, Christopher R.; Brown, Michael J.. Electrical current generation system. USP2005076921597.
  20. Raybold,Troy Michael; Drnevich,Raymond Francis; Meagher,James Patrick. Electricity and synthesis gas generation method. USP2008127467519.
  21. Radovich, Michael John. Electricity, heat and fuel generation system using fuel cell, bioreactor and twin-fluid bed steam gasifier. USP2013018349504.
  22. Joos, Nathaniel Ian; Cargnelli, Joseph. Electrolyser and energy system. USP20190210214821.
  23. Batawi, Emad El; Petersen, Eric; Stephenson, Richard. Electrolyte supported cell designed for longer life and higher power. USP2016019246184.
  24. Couse, Stephen. Electrolyte supported cell designed for longer life and higher power. USP2012128333919.
  25. Couse, Stephen. Electrolyte supported cell designed for longer life and higher power. USP2011118067129.
  26. El Batawi, Emad; Petersen, Eric; Stephenson, Richard. Electrolyte supported cell designed for longer life and higher power. USP2018069991540.
  27. Gottmann, Matthias; Nguyen, Dien; Batawi, Emad El; Armstrong, Tad; Wang, Gonghou; Hickey, Darren. Electrolyte supported cell designed for longer life and higher power. USP2015048999601.
  28. Fairlie, Matthew J.; Stewart, William J.; Stuart, Andrew T. B.; Thorpe, Steven J.; Dong, Charlie. Energy distribution network. USP2009047519453.
  29. Fairlie, Matthew J.; Stewart, William J.; Stuart, Andrew T. B.; Thorpe, Steven J.; Dong, Charlie. Energy distribution network. USP2009077565224.
  30. Keefer,Bowie G.; Connor,Denis J.; Hunter,Carl F.. Energy efficient gas separation for fuel cells. USP2006087087331.
  31. Keefer,Bowie G.; Babicki,Matthew L.; Kirby,Mark H.. Enhanced solid oxide fuel cell systems. USP2007107285350.
  32. McElroy,James F.; Sridhar,K. R.. Environmentally tolerant anode catalyst for a solid oxide fuel cell. USP2007087255956.
  33. Keefer, Bowie G.; Doman, David G.. Flow regulated pressure swing adsorption system. USP200404RE38493.
  34. Keefer,Bowie G.; Doman,David G.. Flow regulated pressure swing adsorption system. USP200801RE40006.
  35. Vinegar,Harold J.; Harris,Christopher Kelvin; Hartmann,Robin Adrianus; Pratt,Christopher Arnold; Lepper,Gordon Bruce; Wagner,Randolph Rogers. Forming openings in a hydrocarbon containing formation using magnetic tracking. USP2006016991045.
  36. Levan, M. Douglas; Finn, John E.; McElroy, James F.. Fuel cell anode exhaust fuel recovery by adsorption. USP2009097591880.
  37. Richards, Gilbert; Trevisan, David; Lee, Michael L; Mahler, Jessica; Parker, Ross; Clarabut, Alex; Pearson, Chad; Ballantine, Arne; Weingaertner, David; Hixson, Jason; Mitlitsky, Fred. Fuel cell mechanical components. USP2013058440362.
  38. Richards, Gilbert; Trevisan, David; Lee, Michael; Mahler, Jessica; Parker, Ross; Clarabut, Alex; Pearson, Chad; Ballantine, Arne; Weingaertner, David; Hixson, Jason; Mitlitsky, Fred. Fuel cell mechanical components. USP2014098822101.
  39. Trevisan, David; Daco, Christian; Baugh, David. Fuel cell mechanical components. USP2017099755263.
  40. Perry, Martin; Ballantine, Arne. Fuel cell stack module shell with integrated heat exchanger. USP2014108852820.
  41. Perry, Martin; Ballantine, Arne. Fuel cell system components. USP2017089722273.
  42. Perry, Martin; Venkataraman, Swaminathan. Fuel cell system containing anode tail gas oxidizer and hybrid heat exchanger/reformer. USP2015089105894.
  43. Perry, Martin; Venkataraman, Swaminathan. Fuel cell system containing anode tail gas oxidizer and hybrid heat exchanger/reformer. USP2012108288041.
  44. Perry, Martin; Venkataraman, Swaminathan. Fuel cell system containing anode tail gas oxidizer and hybrid heat exchanger/reformer. USP2013098535839.
  45. Venkataraman, Swaminathan; Ballantine, Arne Watson; Weingaertner, David. Fuel cell system operated on liquid fuels. USP2014098822094.
  46. McElroy, James; Venkataraman, Swaminathan. Fuel cell system with electrochemical anode exhaust recycling. USP2012018101307.
  47. Ballantine, Arne Watson; McElroy, James F.. Fuel cell system with greater than 95% fuel utilization. USP2010117833668.
  48. McElroy, James; Venkataraman, Swaminathan; Finn, John; LeVan, M. Douglas; Mitlitsky, Fred. Fuel cell system with partial recycling of anode exhaust. USP2018039911989.
  49. Venkataraman, Swaminathan; Lyle, William David; Perry, Martin; Whittenberger, William. Fuel cell system with thermally integrated combustor and corrugated foil reformer. USP2009047524572.
  50. Keefer, Bowie G.; Babicki, Matthew L.; Boulet, Andre Jason Joseph; Pelman, Aaron M.; Sellars, Brian G.; Roy, Surajit. Gas separation by combined pressure swing and displacement purge. USP2005066902602.
  51. Vinegar, Harold J.; Bass, Ronald Marshall; Hunsucker, Bruce Gerard. Heat sources with conductive material for in situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation. USP2005086929067.
  52. Vinegar, Harold; Nguyen, Scott. Heater pattern for in situ thermal processing of a subsurface hydrocarbon containing formation. USP20180810047594.
  53. Vinegar, Harold; Nguyen, Scott. Heater pattern for in situ thermal processing of a subsurface hydrocarbon containing formation. USP2017039605524.
  54. Keefer,Bowie G.. High temperature fuel cell power plant. USP2006087097925.
  55. Venkataraman, Swaminathan; Gottmann, Matthias; Finn, John. High temperature fuel cell system and method of operating same. USP2010047704618.
  56. Venkataraman,Swaminathan; Gottmann,Matthias; Finn,John. High temperature fuel cell system and method of operating same. USP2008097422810.
  57. Bandhauer, Todd M.; Reinke, Michael J.; Valensa, Jeroen. High temperature fuel cell system with integrated heat exchanger network. USP2016089413017.
  58. Bandhauer, Todd M.; Reinke, Michael J.; Valensa, Jeroen. High temperature fuel cell system with integrated heat exchanger network. USP2010127858256.
  59. Bandhauer, Todd M.; Reinke, Michael J.; Valensa, Jeroen. High temperature fuel cell system with integrated heat exchanger network. USP2014048691462.
  60. Gottmann, Matthias; Armstrong, Tad. High utilization stack. USP2011067968245.
  61. Sandberg, Chester Ledlie; Vinegar, Harold J.; Harris, Christopher Kelvin; Son, Jaime Santos; Carl, Jr., Fredrick Gordon. High voltage temperature limited heaters. USP2012088238730.
  62. Jahnke, Fred C.; Farooque, Mohammad; Ghezel-Ayagh, Hossein. High-efficiency dual-stack molten carbonate fuel cell system. USP2011118062799.
  63. Jahnke, Fred C.; Farooque, Mohammad; Ghezel-Ayagh, Hossein. High-efficiency dual-stack molten carbonate fuel cell system. USP2012088236458.
  64. Weingaertner, David; Venkataraman, Swaminathan. Hot box design with a multi-stream heat exchanger and single air control. USP2015109166240.
  65. Weingaertner, David; Venkataraman, Swaminathan. Hot box design with a multi-stream heat exchanger and single air control. USP2012038137855.
  66. Schick,Louis Andrew; Dean,Anthony John. Hybrid fuel cell-pulse detonation power system. USP2006127150143.
  67. Venkataraman, Swaminathan. Hybrid fuel heat exchanger—pre-reformer in SOFC systems. USP2014128920997.
  68. Venkataraman, Swaminathan. Hybrid reformer for fuel flexibility. USP2010047704617.
  69. Venkataraman, Swaminathan. Hybrid reformer for fuel flexibility. USP2011118057944.
  70. Shurtleff,James Kevin; Ladd,Eric J.; Brydon,Chris A.; Patton,John M.; Anderson,Howard. Hydrogen generator cartridge. USP2008107438732.
  71. Lackner, Klaus S.; Ziock, Hans J.; Harrison, Douglas P.. Hydrogen production from carbonaceous material. USP2004096790430.
  72. Keefer,Bowie G.; Babicki,Matthew L.. Hydrogen recycle for solid oxide fuel cell. USP2008067387849.
  73. Karanikas, John Michael; Wellington, Scott Lee; Vinegar, Harold J.; de Rouffignac, Eric Pierre; Berchenko, Ilya Emil; Stegemeier, George Leo; Zhang, Etuan; Fowler, Thomas David; Ryan, Robert Charles. In Situ thermal processing of a coal formation to control product composition. USP2003076588503.
  74. Wellington, Scott Lee; Vinegar, Harold J.; de Rouffignac, Eric Pierre; Karanikas, John Michael; Berchenko, Ilya Emil; Stegemeier, George Leo; Zhang, Etuan; Fowler, Thomas David; Ryan, Robert Charles. In Situ thermal processing of a coal formation to produce a condensate. USP2003086607033.
  75. Wellington, Scott Lee; Vinegar, Harold J.; de Rouffignac, Eric Pierre; Berchenko, Ilya Emil; Stegemeier, George Leo; Zhang, Etuan; Shahin, Jr., Gordon Thomas; Fowler, Thomas David; Ryan, Robert Charl. In Situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation to produce sulfur containing formation fluids. USP2003066581684.
  76. Shahin, Jr., Gordon Thomas; Vinegar, Harold J.; Wellington, Scott Lee; de Rouffignac, Eric Pierre; Karanikas, John Michael; Berchenko, Ilya Emil; Stegemeier, George Leo; Maher, Kevin Albert. In Situ thermal processing of hydrocarbons within a relatively impermeable formation. USP2005076913078.
  77. Wellington,Scott Lee; Karanikas,John Michael; Maher,Kevin Albert; Sumnu Dindoruk,Meliha Deniz; Vinegar,Harold J.. In situ production of a blending agent from a hydrocarbon containing formation. USP2006087086465.
  78. Vinegar, Harold J.; Wellington, Scott Lee; de Rouffignac, Eric Pierre; Berchenko, Ilya Emil; Stegemeier, George Leo; Van Hardeveld, Robert Martijn. In situ production of synthesis gas from a coal formation through a heat source wellbore. USP2004086769485.
  79. Vinegar, Harold J.; Wellington, Scott Lee; Berchenko, Ilya Emil; Van Hardeveld, Robert Martijn. In situ production of synthesis gas from a coal formation, the synthesis gas having a selected H2 to CO ratio. USP2005046880635.
  80. Vinegar, Harold J.; Wellington, Scott Lee; de Rouffignac, Eric Pierre; Berchenko, Ilya Emil; Stegemeier, George Leo; Van Hardeveld, Robert Martijn. In situ production of synthesis gas from a hydrocarbon containing formation through a heat source wellbore. USP2004046715546.
  81. Vinegar, Harold J.; Wellington, Scott Lee; de Rouffignac, Eric Pierre; Berchenko, Ilya Emil; Van Hardeveld, Robert Martijn. In situ production of synthesis gas from a hydrocarbon containing formation, the synthesis gas having a selected H2 to CO ratio. USP2004056732796.
  82. Vinegar,Harold J.; Aymond, Jr.,Dannie Antoine; Maher,Kevin Albert; McKinzie, II,Billy John; Palfreyman,Bruce Donald; Stegemeier,George Leo; Ward,John Michael; Watkins,Ronnie Wade; Wellington,Scott Le. In situ recovery from a hydrocarbon containing formation using barriers. USP2006077077198.
  83. Vinegar,Harold J.; Bass,Ronald Marshall. In situ recovery from a hydrocarbon containing formation using conductor-in-conduit heat sources with an electrically conductive material in the overburden. USP2007017165615.
  84. Maher,Kevin Albert; Berchenko,Ilya Emil; de Rouffignac,Eric Pierre; Karanikas,John Michael; Vinegar,Harold J.; Wellington,Scott Lee; Zhang,Etuan. In situ recovery from a kerogen and liquid hydrocarbon containing formation. USP2006037011154.
  85. Wellington,Scott Lee; de Rouffignac,Eric Pierre; Vinegar,Harold J.. In situ recovery from lean and rich zones in a hydrocarbon containing formation. USP2006067066257.
  86. Vinegar,Harold J.; Aymond, Jr.,Dannie Antoine; Maher,Kevin Albert; McKinzie, II,Billy John; Palfreyman,Bruce Donald; Stegemeier,George Leo; Ward,John Michael; Watkins,Ronnie Wade; Wellington,Scott Le. In situ thermal processing and inhibiting migration of fluids into or out of an in situ oil shale formation. USP2006047032660.
  87. Ward,John Michael; de Rouffignac,Eric Pierre; Madgavkar,Ajay Madhav; Maher,Kevin Albert; Palfreyman,Bruce Donald; Ryan,Robert Charles; Stegemeier,George Leo; Vinegar,Harold J.; Wellington,Scott Lee. In situ thermal processing and remediation of an oil shale formation. USP2006027004251.
  88. Vinegar,Harold J.; de Rouffignac,Eric Pierre; Maher,Kevin Albert; Schoeling,Lanny Gene; Wellington,Scott Lee. In situ thermal processing and solution mining of an oil shale formation. USP2006026997518.
  89. Vinegar, Harold J.; Wellington, Scott Lee; de Rouffignac, Eric Pierre; Karanikas, John Michael; Shahin, Jr., Gordon Thomas; Berchenko, Ilya Emil; Stegemeier, George Leo; Maher, Kevin Albert; Zhang, E. In situ thermal processing of a coal formation and tuning production. USP2004056739393.
  90. de Rouffignac, Eric Pierre; Vinegar, Harold J.; Wellington, Scott Lee; Karanikas, John Michael; Berchenko, Ilya Emil; Stegemeier, George Leo; Zhang, Etuan; Fowler, Thomas David; Ryan, Robert Charles. In situ thermal processing of a coal formation by controlling a pressure of the formation. USP2004046725921.
  91. Wellington, Scott Lee; Vinegar, Harold J.; de Rouffignac, Eric Pierre; Karanikas, John Michael; Berchenko, Ilya Emil; Stegemeier, George Leo; Zhang, Etuan; Fowler, Thomas David; Ryan, Robert Charles. In situ thermal processing of a coal formation in reducing environment. USP2004036712135.
  92. de Rouffignac, Eric Pierre; Vinegar, Harold J.; Wellington, Scott Lee; Karanikas, John Michael; Berchenko, Ilya Emil; Stegemeier, George Leo; Maher, Kevin Albert; Zhang, Etuan; Fowler, Thomas David; . In situ thermal processing of a coal formation leaving one or more selected unprocessed areas. USP2004036708758.
  93. Vinegar,Harold J.; Wellington,Scott Lee; de Rouffignac,Eric Pierre; Karanikas,John Michael; Berchenko,Ilya Emil; Stegemeier,George Leo; Maher,Kevin Albert; Zhang,Etuan; Fowler,Thomas David; Ryan,Robe. In situ thermal processing of a coal formation to convert a selected total organic carbon content into hydrocarbon products. USP2006016991031.
  94. Vinegar, Harold J.; Wellington, Scott Lee; de Rouffignac, Eric Pierre; Berchenko, Ilya Emil. In situ thermal processing of a coal formation to form a substantially uniform, relatively high permeable formation. USP2004066742587.
  95. Vinegar, Harold J.; Wellington, Scott Lee; de Rouffignac, Eric Pierre; Karanikas, John Michael; Berchenko, Ilya Emil; Stegemeier, George Leo; Shahin, Jr., Gordon Thomas; Maher, Kevin Albert; Zhang, E. In situ thermal processing of a coal formation to increase a permeability/porosity of the formation. USP2005036866097.
  96. Vinegar, Harold J.; Wellington, Scott Lee; de Rouffignac, Eric Pierre; Karanikas, John Michael; Berchenko, Ilya Emil; Stegemeier, George Leo; Madgavkar, Ajay Madhav; Van Hardeveld, Robert Martijn. In situ thermal processing of a coal formation to produce hydrocarbon fluids and synthesis gas. USP2004076761216.
  97. Vinegar, Harold J.; Wellington, Scott Lee; de Rouffignac, Eric Pierre; Karanikas, John Michael; Berchenko, Ilya Emil; Stegemeier, George Leo; Zhang, Etuan; Fowler, Thomas David; Ryan, Robert Charles. In situ thermal processing of a coal formation to produce hydrocarbons having a selected carbon number range. USP2004056729396.
  98. Wellington, Scott Lee; Vinegar, Harold J.; Karanikas, John Michael; Berchenko, Ilya Emil; Stegemeier, George Leo; Zhang, Etuan; Fowler, Thomas David; Ryan, Robert Charles. In situ thermal processing of a coal formation to produce nitrogen and/or sulfur containing formation fluids. USP2003076588504.
  99. Vinegar, Harold J.; Wellington, Scott Lee; de Rouffignac, Eric Pierre; Karanikas, John Michael; Berchenko, Ilya Emil; Stegemeier, George Leo; Zhang, Etuan; Fowler, Thomas David; Ryan, Robert Charles. In situ thermal processing of a coal formation to pyrolyze a selected percentage of hydrocarbon material. USP2004036712137.
  100. Vinegar, Harold J.; Wellington, Scott Lee; de Rouffignac, Eric Pierre; Karanikas, John Michael; Berchenko, Ilya Emil; Stegemeier, George Leo; Zhang, Etuan; Fowler, Thomas David; Ryan, Robert Charles. In situ thermal processing of a coal formation using a controlled heating rate. USP2004066749021.
  101. Vinegar, Harold J.; Wellington, Scott Lee; de Rouffignac, Eric Pierre; Karanikas, John Michael; Berchenko, Ilya Emil; Menotti, James Louis; Coles, John Matthew. In situ thermal processing of a coal formation using a distributed combustor. USP2004046725928.
  102. de Rouffignac,Eric Pierre; Vinegar,Harold J.; Wellington,Scott Lee; Karanikas,John Michael; Berchenko,Ilya Emil; Stegemeier,George Leo; Zhang,Etuan; Fowler,Thomas David; Ryan,Robert Charles. In situ thermal processing of a coal formation using a movable heating element. USP2006087096953.
  103. Karanikas, John Michael; Vinegar, Harold J.; Wellington, Scott Lee; de Rouffignac, Eric Pierre; Berchenko, Ilya Emil; Stegemeier, George Leo; Zhang, Etuan; Fowler, Thomas David; Ryan, Robert Charles. In situ thermal processing of a coal formation using a relatively slow heating rate. USP2004036698515.
  104. de Rouffignac, Eric Pierre; Vinegar, Harold J.; Wellington, Scott Lee; Karanikas, John Michael; Berchenko, Ilya Emil; Maher, Kevin Albert; Zhang, Etuan; Fowler, Thomas David; Keedy, Charles Robert; R. In situ thermal processing of a coal formation using heat sources positioned within open wellbores. USP2004066752210.
  105. Berchenko, Ilya Emil; Vinegar, Harold J.; Wellington, Scott Lee; de Rouffignac, Eric Pierre; Karanikas, John Michael; Stegemeier, George Leo; Fowler, Thomas David; Ryan, Robert Charles. In situ thermal processing of a coal formation using repeating triangular patterns of heat sources. USP2004066742589.
  106. Maher,Kevin Albert; Vinegar,Harold J.; Wellington,Scott Lee; de Rouffignac,Eric Pierre; Karanikas,John Michael; Berchenko,Ilya Emil; Stegemeier,George Leo; Zhang,Etuan; Fowler,Thomas David; Ryan,Robe. In situ thermal processing of a coal formation with a selected moisture content. USP2006026994161.
  107. Berchenko, Ilya Emil; Vinegar, Harold J.; Wellington, Scott Lee; de Rouffignac, Eric Pierre; Karanikas, John Michael; Stegemeier, George Leo; Zhang, Etuan; Fowler, Thomas David; Ryan, Robert Charles. In situ thermal processing of a coal formation with a selected ratio of heat sources to production wells. USP2005116959761.
  108. Zhang, Etuan; Vinegar, Harold J.; Wellington, Scott Lee; de Rouffignac, Eric Pierre; Karanikas, John Michael; Berchenko, Ilya Emil; Stegemeier, George Leo; Maher, Kevin Albert; Fowler, Thomas David; . In situ thermal processing of a coal formation with a selected vitrinite reflectance. USP2003076591907.
  109. Schoeling, Lanny Gene; Vinegar, Harold J.; Wellington, Scott Lee; de Rouffignac, Eric Pierre; Karanikas, John Michael; Berchenko, Ilya Emil; Stegemeier, George Leo; Maher, Kevin Albert; Zhang, Etuan;. In situ thermal processing of a coal formation with carbon dioxide sequestration. USP2004076763886.
  110. de Rouffignac,Eric Pierre; Vinegar,Harold J.; Karanikas,John Michael; Berchenko,Ilya Emil; Stegemeier,George Leo; Maher,Kevin Albert; Zhang,Etuan; Fowler,Thomas David; Ryan,Robert Charles; Wellington. In situ thermal processing of a coal formation with heat sources located at an edge of a coal layer. USP2006087096941.
  111. Vinegar,Harold J.; Berchenko,Ilya Emil; de Rouffignac,Eric Pierre; Karanikas,John Michael; Maher,Kevin Albert; Stegemeier,George Leo; Shahin, Jr.,Gordon Thomas; Wellington,Scott Lee. In situ thermal processing of a heavy oil diatomite formation. USP2006097104319.
  112. Vinegar, Harold J.; Wellington, Scott Lee; Berchenko, Ilya Emil; Madgavkar, Ajay Madhav; Ward, John Michael; Van Hardeveld, Robert Martijn. In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation and ammonia production. USP2004056729401.
  113. de Rouffignac, Eric Pierre; Vinegar, Harold J.; Wellington, Scott Lee; Shahin, Jr., Gordon Thomas; Berchenko, Ilya Emil; Stegemeier, George Leo; Zhang, Etuan; Fowler, Thomas David; Ryan, Robert Charl. In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation by controlling a pressure of the formation. USP2004066745831.
  114. Maher, Kevin Albert; Vinegar, Harold J.; Wellington, Scott Lee; de Rouffignac, Eric Pierre; Shahin, Jr., Gordon Thomas; Berchenko, Ilya Emil; Stegemeier, George Leo; Zhang, Etuan; Fowler, Thomas Davi. In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation having a selected total organic carbon content. USP2005066902003.
  115. Fowler, Thomas David; Wellington, Scott Lee; Vinegar, Harold J.; de Rouffignac, Eric Pierre; Berchenko, Ilya Emil; Stegemeier, George Leo; Zhang, Etuan; Shahin, Jr., Gordon Thomas; Ryan, Robert Charl. In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation in a hydrogen-rich environment. USP2004046719047.
  116. Wellington,Scott Lee; Vinegar,Harold J.; de Rouffignac,Eric Pierre; Berchenko,IIya Emil; Stegemeier,George Leo; Zhang,Etuan; Shahin, Jr.,Gordon Thomas; Fowler,Thomas David; Ryan,Robert Charles. In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation in a reducing environment. USP2006026997255.
  117. de Rouffignac, Eric Pierre; Vinegar, Harold J.; Wellington, Scott Lee; Berchenko, Ilya Emil; Stegemeier, George Leo; Maher, Kevin Albert; Zhang, Etuan; Shahin, Jr., Gordon Thomas; Fowler, Thomas Davi. In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation leaving one or more selected unprocessed areas. USP2004046722429.
  118. Zhang, Etuan; Vinegar, Harold J.; Wellington, Scott Lee; de Rouffignac, Eric Pierre; Berchenko, Ilya Emil; Stegemeier, George Leo; Shahin, Jr., Gordon Thomas; Fowler, Thomas David; Ryan, Robert Charl. In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation to convert a selected amount of total organic carbon into hydrocarbon products. USP2004046725920.
  119. Vinegar, Harold J.; Wellington, Scott Lee; de Rouffignac, Eric Pierre; Berchenko, Ilya Emil. In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation to form a substantially uniform, high permeability formation. USP2004046715547.
  120. de Rouffignac,Eric Pierre; Vinegar,Harold J.; Wellington,Scott Lee; Berchenko,Ilya Emil; Stegemeier,George Leo; Zhang,Etuan; Shahin, Jr.,Gordon Thomas; Fowler,Thomas David; Ryan,Robert Charles. In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation to increase a porosity of the formation. USP2006057036583.
  121. Wellington, Scott Lee; Vinegar, Harold J.; de Rouffignac, Eric Pierre; Shahin, Jr., Gordon Thomas; Karanikas, John Michael; Berchenko, Ilya Emil; Stegemeier, George Leo; Zhang, Etuan; Fowler, Thomas . In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation to produce a hydrocarbon condensate. USP2004026688387.
  122. Wellington, Scott Lee; Vinegar, Harold J.; de Rouffignac, Eric Pierre; Berchenko, Ilya Emil; Stegemeier, George Leo; Zhang, Etuan; Shahin, Jr., Gordon Thomas; Fowler, Thomas David; Ryan, Robert Charl. In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation to produce formation fluids having a relatively low olefin content. USP2004066742588.
  123. Wellington,Scott Lee. In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation to produce heated fluids. USP2006087090013.
  124. Vinegar, Harold J.; Wellington, Scott Lee; Karanikas, John Michael; Berchenko, Ilya Emil; Stegemeier, George Leo; Madgavkar, Ajay Madhav; Van Hardeveld, Robert Martijn. In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation to produce hydrocarbon fluids and synthesis gas. USP2004106805195.
  125. Wellington,Scott Lee; Vinegar,Harold J.; de Rouffignac,Eric Pierre; Berchenko,Ilya Emil; Stegemeier,George Leo; Zhang,Etuan; Shahin, Jr.,Gordon Thomas; Fowler,Thomas David; Ryan,Robert Charles. In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation to produce hydrocarbons having a selected carbon number range. USP2006026994160.
  126. Wellington, Scott Lee; Vinegar, Harold J.; Pierre de Rouffignac, Eric; Berchenko, Ilya Emil; Stegemeier, George Leo; Zhang, Etuan; Shahin, Jr., Gordon Thomas; Fowler, Thomas David; Ryan, Robert Charl. In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation to produce nitrogen containing formation fluids. USP2004046715548.
  127. Wellington, Scott Lee; Vinegar, Harold J.; de Rouffignac, Eric Pierre; Berchenko, Ilya Emil; Stegemeier, George Leo; Zhang, Etuan; Shahin, Jr., Gordon Thomas; Fowler, Thomas David; Ryan, Robert Charl. In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation to produce oxygen containing formation fluids. USP2005116966372.
  128. de Rouffignac, Eric Pierre; Vinegar, Harold J.; Wellington, Scott Lee; Berchenko, Ilya Emil; Stegemeier, George Leo; Zhang, Etuan; Shahin, Jr., Gordon Thomas; Fowler, Thomas David; Ryan, Robert Charl. In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation to pyrolyze a selected percentage of hydrocarbon material. USP2004056732795.
  129. Wellington, Scott Lee; Vinegar, Harold J.; de Rouffignac, Eric Pierre; Berchenko, Ilya Emil; Stegemeier, George Leo; Zhang, Etuan; Shahin, Jr., Gordon Thomas; Fowler, Thomas David; Ryan, Robert Charl. In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation using a controlled heating rate. USP2004066745837.
  130. de Rouffignac, Eric Pierre; Vinegar, Harold J.; Wellington, Scott Lee; Shahin, Jr., Gordon Thomas; Berchenko, Ilya Emil; Stegemeier, George Leo; Zhang, Etuan; Fowler, Thomas David; Ryan, Robert Charl. In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation using a movable heating element. USP2005066902004.
  131. Vinegar,Harold J.; de Rouffignac,Eric Pierre; Wellington,Scott Lee; Van Hardeveld,Robert Martijn. In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation using a natural distributed combustor. USP2006107114566.
  132. Wellington, Scott Lee; Vinegar, Harold J.; de Rouffignac, Eric Pierre; Karanikas, John Michael; Berchenko, Ilya Emil; Maher, Kevin Albert; Shahin, Jr., Gordon Thomas; Menotti, James Louis; Coles, Joh. In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation using a natural distributed combustor. USP2005066910536.
  133. Vinegar, Harold J.; Wellington, Scott Lee; de Rouffignac, Eric Pierre; Shahin, Jr., Gordon Thomas; Berchenko, Ilya Emil; Stegemeier, George Leo; Zhang, Etuan; Fowler, Thomas David; Ryan, Robert Charl. In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation using a relatively slow heating rate. USP2004076758268.
  134. de Rouffignac, Eric Pierre; Vinegar, Harold J.; Wellington, Scott Lee; Shahin, Jr., Gordon Thomas; Berchenko, Ilya Emil; Stegemeier, George Leo; Maher, Kevin Albert; Zhang, Etuan; Fowler, Thomas Davi. In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation using a selected production well spacing. USP2004036712136.
  135. de Rouffignac, Eric Pierre; Vinegar, Harold J.; Karanikas, John Michael; Menotti, James Louis; Coles, John Matthew; Hunsucker, Bruce Gerard; Bielamowicz, Lawrence James; Carl, Jr., Fredrick Gordon. In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation using conductor in conduit heat sources. USP2004086769483.
  136. de Rouffignac, Eric Pierre; Vinegar, Harold J.; Keedy, Charles Robert; Hunsucker, Bruce Gerard; Carl, Jr., Fredrick Gordon. In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation using exposed metal heat sources. USP2004096789625.
  137. de Rouffignac,Eric Pierre; Vinegar,Harold J.; Wellington,Scott Lee; Karanikas,John Michael; Berchenko,Ilya Emil; Zhang,Etuan; Fowler,Thomas David; Keedy,Charles Robert; Ryan,Robert Charles; Hunsucker. In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation using heat sources positioned within open wellbores. USP2006087086468.
  138. Vinegar, Harold J.; de Rouffignac, Eric Pierre; Hunsucker, Bruce Gerard. In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation using heat transfer from a heat transfer fluid to heat the formation. USP2004066742593.
  139. Stegemeier, George Leo; Vinegar, Harold J.; Wellington, Scott Lee; de Rouffignac, Eric Pierre; Shahin, Jr., Gordon Thomas; Karanikas, John Michael; Berchenko, Ilya Emil; Zhang, Etuan; Fowler, Thomas . In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation using pressure and/or temperature control. USP2005046877554.
  140. Berchenko, Ilya Emil; Vinegar, Harold J.; Wellington, Scott Lee; de Rouffignac, Eric Pierre; Karanikas, John Michael; Stegemeier, George Leo; Fowler, Thomas David; Ryan, Robert Charles. In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation using repeating triangular patterns of heat sources. USP2005056896053.
  141. Vinegar, Harold J.; de Rouffignac, Eric Pierre; Karanikas, John Michael; Wellington, Scott Lee. In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation via backproducing through a heater well. USP2005086932155.
  142. Wellington, Scott Lee; Vinegar, Harold J.; de Rouffignac, Eric Pierre; Berchenko, Ilya Emil; Stegemeier, George Leo; Maher, Kevin Albert; Zhang, Etuan; Shahin, Jr., Gordon Thomas; Fowler, Thomas Davi. In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation with a selected atomic oxygen to carbon ratio. USP2004046715549.
  143. Wellington, Scott Lee; Vinegar, Harold J.; de Rouffignac, Eric Pierre; Berchenko, Ilya Emil; Stegemeier, George Leo; Maher, Kevin Albert; Zhang, Etuan; Shahin, Jr., Gordon Thomas; Fowler, Thomas Davi. In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation with a selected hydrogen content. USP2005096948563.
  144. Wellington,Scott Lee; Vinegar,Harold J.; de Rouffignac,Eric Pierre; Berchenko,Ilya Emil; Stegemeier,George Leo; Maher,Kevin Albert; Zhang,Etuan; Shahin, Jr.,Gordon Thomas; Fowler,Thomas David; Ryan,R. In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation with a selected hydrogen to carbon ratio. USP2006026994168.
  145. Wellington, Scott Lee; Vinegar, Harold J.; de Rouffignac, Eric Pierre; Berchenko, Ilya Emil; Stegemeier, George Leo; Maher, Kevin Albert; Zhang, Etuan; Shahin, Jr., Gordon Thomas; Fowler, Thomas Davi. In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation with a selected moisture content. USP2005056889769.
  146. Wellington, Scott Lee; Vinegar, Harold J.; de Rouffignac, Eric Pierre; Berchenko, Ilya Emil; Stegemeier, George Leo; Maher, Kevin Albert; Zhang, Etuan; Shahin, Jr., Gordon Thomas; Fowler, Thomas Davi. In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation with a selected oxygen content. USP2003076591906.
  147. Shahin, Jr., Gordon Thomas; Vinegar, Harold J.; Wellington, Scott Lee; de Rouffignac, Eric Pierre; Berchenko, Ilya Emil; Stegemeier, George Leo; Zhang, Etuan; Fowler, Thomas David; Ryan, Robert Charl. In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation with a selected ratio of heat sources to production wells. USP2004056729395.
  148. Zhang, Etuan; Vinegar, Harold J.; Wellington, Scott Lee; de Rouffignac, Eric Pierre; Shahin, Jr., Gordon Thomas; Berchenko, Ilya Emil; Stegemeier, George Leo; Maher, Kevin Albert; Fowler, Thomas Davi. In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation with a selected vitrinite reflectance. USP2004056729397.
  149. Karanikas, John Michael; Vinegar, Harold J.; Wellington, Scott Lee; de Rouffignac, Eric Pierre; Berchenko, Ilya Emil; Stegemeier, George Leo; Maher, Kevin Albert; Zhang, Etuan; Schoeling, Lanny Gene;. In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation with carbon dioxide sequestration. USP2005036871707.
  150. de Rouffignac, Eric Pierre; Vinegar, Harold J.; Wellington, Scott Lee; Shahin, Jr., Gordon Thomas; Berchenko, Ilya Emil; Stegemeier, George Leo; Maher, Kevin Albert; Zhang, Etuan; Fowler, Thomas Davi. In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation with heat sources located at an edge of a formation layer. USP2004036702016.
  151. Maher, Kevin Albert; Vinegar, Harold J.; Wellington, Scott Lee; de Rouffignac, Eric Pierre; Karanikas, John Michael; Berchenko, Ilya Emil; Zhang, Etuan; Schoeling, Lanny Gene. In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation, in situ production of synthesis gas, and carbon dioxide sequestration. USP2004056736215.
  152. de Rouffignac,Eric Pierre; Berchenko,Ilya Emil; Fowler,Thomas David; Hunsucker,Bruce Gerard; Karanikas,John Michael; Keedy,Charles Robert; Ryan,Robert Charles; Vinegar,Harold J.; Wellington,Scott Lee. In situ thermal processing of a relatively impermeable formation using an open wellbore. USP2006057040400.
  153. Wellington,Scott Lee; Berchenko,Ilya Emil; de Rouffignac,Eric Pierre; Fowler,Thomas David; Ryan,Robert Charles; Shahin, Jr.,Gordon Thomas; Stegemeier,George Leo; Vinegar,Harold J.; Zhang,Etuan. In situ thermal processing of a relatively permeable formation in a reducing environment. USP2006057040398.
  154. de Rouffignac,Eric Pierre; Berchenko,Ilya Emil; Fowler,Thomas David; Ryan,Robert Charles; Shahin, Jr.,Gordon Thomas; Stegemeier,George Leo; Vinegar,Harold J.; Wellington,Scott Lee; Zhang,Etuan. In situ thermal processing of a relatively permeable formation while controlling pressure. USP2006087096942.
  155. Vinegar,Harold J.; de Rouffignac,Eric Pierre; Karanikas,John Michael; Maher,Kevin Albert; Sumnu Dindoruk,Meliha Deniz; Wellington,Scott Lee; Crane,Steven Dexter; Messier,Margaret Ann; Roberts,Bruce E. In situ thermal processing of a tar sands formation. USP2006067066254.
  156. Vinegar,Harold J.; Berchenko,Ilya Emil; de Rouffignac,Eric P.; Fowler,Thomas David; Ryan,Robert Charles; Wellington,Scott Lee; Zhang,Etuan. In situ thermal processing of an oil reservoir formation. USP2006077077199.
  157. Vinegar, Harold J.; de Rouffignac, Eric Pierre; Wellington, Scott Lee. In situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation having permeable and impermeable sections. USP2005076915850.
  158. Wellington, Scott Lee; Berchenko, Ilya Emil; de Rouffignac, Eric Pierre; Fowler, Thomas David; Ryan, Robert Charles; Shahin, Jr., Gordon Thomas; Stegemeier, George Leo; Vinegar, Harold J.; Zhang, Etu. In situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation in a reducing environment. USP2005076918442.
  159. Wellington, Scott Lee; Berchenko, Ilya Emil; de Rouffignac, Eric Pierre; Fowler, Thomas David; Karanikas, John Michael; Ryan, Robert Charles; Shahin, Jr., Gordon Thomas; Stegemeier, George Leo; Vineg. In situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation to produce a condensate. USP2005086923257.
  160. Wellington, Scott Lee; Berchenko, Ilya Emil; de Rouffignac, Eric Pierre; Fowler, Thomas David; Ryan, Robert Charles; Shahin, Jr., Gordon Thomas; Stegemeier, George Leo; Vinegar, Harold J.; Zhang, Etu. In situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation to produce a desired product. USP2005046880633.
  161. Wellington, Scott Lee; Berchenko, Ilya Emil; de Rouffignac, Eric Pierre; Fowler, Thomas David; Ryan, Robert Charles; Shahin, Jr., Gordon Thomas; Stegemeier, George Leo; Vinegar, Harold J.; Zhang, Etu. In situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation to produce hydrocarbons having a selected carbon number range. USP2005076918443.
  162. Wellington,Scott Lee; Berchenko,Ilya Emil; de Rouffignac,Eric Pierre; Fowler,Thomas David; Ryan,Robert Charles; Shahin, Jr.,Gordon Thomas; Stegemeier,George Leo; Vinegar,Harold J.; Zhang,Etuan. In situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation using a controlled heating rate. USP2006057040399.
  163. Vinegar,Harold J.; Coles,John Matthew; de Rouffignac,Eric Pierre; Karanikas,John Michael; Menotti,James Louis; Van Hardeveld,Robert Martijn; Wellington,Scott Lee. In situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation using a natural distributed combustor. USP2006037013972.
  164. Berchenko,Ilya Emil; de Rouffignac,Eric Pierre; Fowler,Thomas David; Karanikas,John Michael; Ryan,Robert Charles; Shahin, Jr.,Gordon Thomas; Stegemeier,George Leo; Vinegar,Harold J.; Wellington,Scott. In situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation using a pattern of heat sources. USP2006016991032.
  165. Berchenko,Ilya Emil; de Rouffignac,Eric Pierre; Fowler,Thomas David; Karanikas,John Michael; Ryan,Robert Charles; Shahin, Jr.,Gordon Thomas; Stegemeier,George Leo; Vinegar,Harold J.; Wellington,Scott. In situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation using a pattern of heat sources. USP2007067225866.
  166. de Rouffignac, Eric Pierre; Berchenko, Ilya Emil; Fowler, Thomas David; Karanikas, John Michael; Maher, Kevin Albert; Ryan, Robert Charles; Shahin, Jr., Gordon Thomas; Vinegar, Harold J.; Wellington,. In situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation using horizontal heat sources. USP2005106951247.
  167. Karanikas, John Michael; de Rouffignac, Eric Pierre; Vinegar, Harold J.; Wellington, Scott Lee. In situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation while inhibiting coking. USP2005046877555.
  168. Zhang,Etuan; Berchenko,Ilya Emil; de Rouffignac,Eric Pierre; Fowler,Thomas David; Maher,Kevin Albert; Ryan,Robert Charles; Shahin, Jr.,Gordon Thomas; Stegemeier,George Leo; Vinegar,Harold J.; Welling. In situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation with a selected property. USP2006026994169.
  169. Vinegar, Harold J.; Wellington, Scott Lee; de Rouffignac, Eric Pierre; Karanikas, John Michael; Berchenko, Ilya Emil; Stegemeier, George Leo; Maher, Kevin Albert; Zhang, Etuan; Fowler, Thomas David; . In situ thermal processing of coal formation with a selected hydrogen content and/or selected H/C ratio. USP2004116820688.
  170. Karanikas, John Michael; Vinegar, Harold J.; Wellington, Scott Lee; de Rouffignac, Eric Pierre; Maher, Kevin Albert; Zhang, Etuan; Fowler, Thomas David; Ryan, Robert Charles; Sumnu-Dindoruk, Meliha D. In situ thermal processing of hydrocarbons within a relatively permeable formation. USP2004046722431.
  171. de Rouffignac,Eric Pierre; Berchenko,Ilya Emil; Fowler,Thomas David; Hunsucker,Bruce Gerard; Karanikas,John Michael; Keedy,Charles Robert; Ryan,Robert Charles; Vinegar,Harold J.; Wellington,Scott Lee. In situ thermal processing through an open wellbore in an oil shale formation. USP2006057051811.
  172. Wellington,Scott Lee; Berchenko,Ilya Emil; de Rouffignac,Eric Pierre; Fowler,Thomas David; Ryan,Robert Charles; Shahin, Jr.,Gordon Thomas; Stegemeier,George Leo; Vinegar,Harold J.; Zhang,Etuan. In situ thermal processing while controlling pressure in an oil shale formation. USP2006016991033.
  173. Wellington, Scott Lee; Vinegar, Harold J.; Pierre de Rouffignac, Eric; Berchenko, Ilya Emil; Stegemeier, George Leo; Zhang, Etuan; Shahin, Jr., Gordon Thomas; Fowler, Thomas David; Ryan, Robert Charl. In situ thermal processsing of a hydrocarbon containing formation to produce a mixture with a selected hydrogen content. USP2005086923258.
  174. Wellington,Scott Lee; Crane,Steven Dexter; de Rouffignac,Eric Pierre; Karanikas,John Michael; Maher,Kevin Albert; Messier,Margaret Ann; Roberts,Bruce Edmunds; Sumnu Dindoruk,Meliha Deniz; Vinegar,Har. In situ thermal recovery from a relatively permeable formation. USP2006016981548.
  175. Vinegar, Harold J.; Sumnu-Dindoruk, Meliha Deniz; Wellington, Scott Lee. In situ thermal recovery from a relatively permeable formation using gas to increase mobility. USP2005116966374.
  176. Vinegar, Harold J.; de Rouffignac, Eric Pierre; Karanikas, John Michael; Sumnu-Dindoruk, Meliha Deniz; Wellington, Scott Lee. In situ thermal recovery from a relatively permeable formation with backproduction through a heater wellbore. USP2005116964300.
  177. Messier,Margaret Ann; Crane,Steven Dexter; de Rouffignac,Eric Pierre; Karanikas,John Michael; Maher,Kevin Albert; Sumnu Dindoruk,Meliha Deniz; Roberts,Bruce Edmunds; Vinegar,Harold J.; Wellington,Sco. In situ thermal recovery from a relatively permeable formation with controlled production rate. USP2006067055600.
  178. Vinegar,Harold J.; de Rouffignac,Eric Pierre; Karanikas,John Michael; Sumnu Dindoruk,Meliha Deniz; Wellington,Scott Lee. In situ thermal recovery from a relatively permeable formation with quality control. USP2006057051807.
  179. Sridhar, K. R.; Russell, Ian; Gottmann, Matthias. Increasing thermal dissipation of fuel cell stacks under partial electrical load. USP2015109166246.
  180. Sridhar, K. R.; Russell, Ian; Gottmann, Matthias. Increasing thermal dissipation of fuel cell stacks under partial electrical load. USP2010047700210.
  181. Sridhar, K. R.; Russell, Ian; Gottmann, Matthias. Increasing thermal dissipation of fuel cell stacks under partial electrical load. USP2014048685579.
  182. Bai,Taixu; Vinegar,Harold J.; Hansen,Kirk Samuel. Inhibiting wellbore deformation during in situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation. USP2007057219734.
  183. Vinegar,Harold J.; Coles,John Matthew; de Rouffignac,Eric Pierre; Hunsucker,Bruce Gerard; Menotti,James Louis; Pratt,Christopher Arnold; Wellington,Scott Lee. Installation and use of removable heaters in a hydrocarbon containing formation. USP2007017156176.
  184. Sandberg, Chester Ledlie; Vinegar, Harold J.; Harris, Christopher Kelvin; Son, Jaime Santos; Carl, Jr., Fredrick Gordon. Insulated conductor temperature limited heaters. USP2012078224164.
  185. Ghezel-Ayagh, Hossein. Integrated fuel cell and heat engine hybrid system for high efficiency power generation. USP2011017862938.
  186. Venkataraman, Swaminathan; Weingaertner, David; Kalika, Vlad. Integrated fuel line to support CPOX and SMR reactions in SOFC systems. USP2017069680175.
  187. Balan, Chellappa; Smith, Daniel Preston. Integrated power plant and system and method incorporating the same. USP2010097803473.
  188. Valensa, Jeroen; Reinke, Michael J.; Voss, Mark G.. Integrated solid oxide fuel cell and fuel processor. USP2010027659022.
  189. Valensa, Jeroen; Reinke, Michael J.; Voss, Mark G.. Integrated solid oxide fuel cell and fuel processor. USP2012088241801.
  190. Armstrong, Tad; Batawi, Emad El; Petersen, Eric. Internal reforming anode for solid oxide fuel cells. USP2013128617763.
  191. Viteri, Fermin. Low pollution power generation system with ion transfer membrane air separation. USP2005096945029.
  192. Sridhar, K. R.; McElroy, James F.. Low pressure hydrogen fueled vehicle and method of operating same. USP2011027878280.
  193. Krumm, Wolfgang; Funk, Günter; Hamel, Stefan; Mertens, Christian. Method and device for pyrolysis and gasification of substance mixtures containing organic constituents. USP2012038128716.
  194. Ballantine, Arne; McElroy, James. Method for high temperature fuel cell system start up and shutdown. USP2010127846599.
  195. Menzel, Johannes. Method for producing hydrogen and power from a synthesis gas. USP2012098257452.
  196. Mitlitsky, Fred; Sridhar, K. R.; Gottman, Matthias; Venkataraman, Swaminathan. Method of optimizing operating efficiency of fuel cells. USP2009087575822.
  197. Mitlitsky, Fred; Sridhar, K. R.; Gottmann, Matthias; Venkataraman, Swaminathan. Method of optimizing operating efficiency of fuel cells. USP2012108277992.
  198. Mitlitsky, Fred; Sridhar, K. R.; Gottmann, Matthias; Venkataraman, Swaminathan. Method of optimizing operating efficiency of fuel cells. USP2014038663859.
  199. Anand Ashok Kumar ; Smith Raub Warfield. Method of using fuel gas expander in power generating plants. USP2001016167692.
  200. Anand Ashok Kumar ; Smith Raub Warfield. Method of using fuel gas expander in power generating plants. USP2001056233916.
  201. Green, Martin C.. Method to produce hydrogen or synthesis gas and carbon black. USP2010027666383.
  202. Connor, Denis J.; Keefer, Bowie G.; McLean, Christopher R.; Knights, Shanna D.; St-Pierre, Jean. Methods and apparatuses for gas separation by pressure swing adsorption with partial gas product feed to fuel cell power source. USP2005036866950.
  203. Veenstra,Peter; de Rouffignac,Eric Pierre; Karanikas,John Michael; Vinegar,Harold J.; Wellington,Scott Lee. Methods and systems for heating a hydrocarbon containing formation in situ with an opening contacting the earth's surface at two locations. USP2006067063145.
  204. Schumer,Steven Edward; Ballantine,Arne Watson. Methods for fuel cell system optimization. USP2008077393603.
  205. Ocampos, Ernesto Rafael Fonseca; Karanikas, John Michael; MacDonald, Duncan Charles; Carter, Jr., Ernest E.. Methods for heating with slots in hydrocarbon formations. USP2014068739874.
  206. Sridhar, K. R.; Venkataraman, Swaminathan; Lyle, William David; Ballantine, Arne. Modular fuel cell system. USP2018049947955.
  207. Sridhar, K. R.; Venkataraman, Swaminathan; Lyle, William David; Ballantine, Arne Watson. Modular fuel cell system. USP2015119190693.
  208. Weingaertner, David; Perry, Martin; Venkataraman, Swaminathan; Kalika, Vlad. Multi-stream heat exchanger for a fuel cell system. USP2016079401517.
  209. Weingaertner, David; Perry, Martin; Venkataraman, Swaminathan; Kalika, Vlad. Multi-stream heat exchanger for a fuel cell system. USP2013058445156.
  210. McElroy, James F.; Weingaertner, David; Venkataraman, Swaminathan; Couse, Stephen. Operation of fuel cell systems with reduced carbon formation and anode leading edge damage. USP2016039287571.
  211. Babicki,Matthew L.; Keefer,Bowie G.; Gibbs,Andrea C.; IaCava,Alberto I.; Fitch,Frank. PSA with adsorbents sensitive to contaminants. USP2006057037358.
  212. Babicki,Matthew L.; Keefer,Bowie G.; Gibbs,Andrea C.; LaCava,Alberto I.; Fitch,Frank R.. PSA with adsorbents sensitive to contaminants. USP2007017160367.
  213. McElroy, James F.; Finn, John E.; LeVan, M. Douglas; Venkataraman, Swaminathan; Mitlitsky, Fred. Partial pressure swing adsorption system for providing hydrogen to a vehicle fuel cell. USP2009047520916.
  214. Armstrong, Tad; Batawi, Emad El; Janousek, Martin; Pillai, Manoj. Phase stable doped zirconia electrolyte compositions with low degradation. USP2013118580456.
  215. Armstrong, Tad; El Batawi, Emad; Janousek, Martin; Pillai, Manoj. Phase stable doped zirconia electrolyte compositions with low degradation. USP2016089413024.
  216. Armstrong, Tad; El Batawi, Emad; Janousek, Martin; Pillai, Manoj. Phase stable doped zirconia electrolyte compositions with low degradation. USP2017109799909.
  217. Weingaertner, David; Kalika, Vlad; Perry, Martin. Pre-reformer for selective reformation of higher hydrocarbons. USP2017109799902.
  218. Weingaertner, David; Kalika, Vlad; Perry, Martin. Pre-reformer for selective reformation of higher hydrocarbons. USP2016039287572.
  219. Sobolevskiy, Anatoly; Rossin, Joseph A.; Knapke, Michael J.. Process of activation of a palladium catalyst system. USP2011087989385.
  220. Vinegar,Harold J.; de Rouffignac,Eric Pierre; Maher,Kevin Albert; Schoeling,Lanny Gene; Wellington,Scott Lee. Producing hydrocarbons and non-hydrocarbon containing materials when treating a hydrocarbon containing formation. USP2006097100994.
  221. Wellington, Scott Lee; de Rouffignac, Eric Pierre; Karanikas, John Michael; Maher, Kevin Albert; Messier, Margaret Ann; Roberts, Bruce Edmunds; Sumnu-Dindoruk, Meliha Deniz; Vinegar, Harold J.. Production of a blending agent using an in situ thermal process in a relatively permeable formation. USP2005096948562.
  222. Vinegar,Harold J.; Wellington,Scott Lee; de Rouffignac,Eric Pierre; Karanikas,John Michael; Berchenko,Ilya Emil; Stegemeier,George Leo; Maher,Kevin Albert; Zhang,Etuan; Fowler,Thomas David; Ryan,Robe. Production of synthesis gas from a coal formation. USP2006037017661.
  223. Vinegar, Harold J.; Wellington, Scott Lee; de Rouffignac, Eric Pierre; Karanikas, John Michael; Berchenko, Ilya Emil; Stegemeier, George Leo; Maher, Kevin Albert; Fowler, Thomas David; Ryan, Robert C. Production of synthesis gas from a hydrocarbon containing formation. USP2004056739394.
  224. Viteri,Fermin. Reheat heat exchanger power generation systems. USP2006047021063.
  225. Cohn, Daniel R.; Surma, Jeffrey E.; Bromberg, Leslie. Renewable electricity conversion of liquid fuels from hydrocarbon feedstocks. USP2016109469533.
  226. Cohn, Daniel R.; Surma, Jeffrey E.; Bromberg, Leslie. Renewable electricity conversion of liquid fuels from hydrocarbon feedstocks. USP2013128614364.
  227. Perry, Martin; Edmonston, David. SOFC hot box components. USP2018069991526.
  228. Perry, Martin; Kalika, Vlad; Weingaertner, David; Sundararajan, Ananda; Krishnan, Navaneetha; Basu, Nilanjana; Ramanan, Ram; Bains, Virpaul; Lyle, William David. SOFC hot box components. USP2015038968943.
  229. Perry, Martin; Krishnan, Navaneetha; Basu, Nilanjana; Ramanan, Ram. SOFC hot box components. USP2018049941525.
  230. Perry, Martin; Weingaertner, David; Basu, Nilanjana; Petrucha, Michael; Lyle, William David; Krishnan, Navaneetha; Gottmann, Matthias. SOFC hot box components. USP2017109780392.
  231. Perry, Martin; Weingaertner, David; Basu, Nilanjana; Petrucha, Michael; Lyle, William David; Krishnan, Navaneetha; Gottmann, Matthias. SOFC hot box components. USP2013108563180.
  232. Venkataraman, Swaminathan; Kalika, Vlad; Weingaertner, David. SOFC hot box components. USP2015119190673.
  233. Venkataraman, Swaminathan; Kalika, Vlad; Weingaertner, David. SOFC hot box components. USP2016129520602.
  234. Weingaertner, David; Petrucha, Michael; Perry, Martin; Edmonston, David; Bains, Virpaul; Ta, Andy; Krishnan, Navaneetha. SOFC hot box components. USP2014118877399.
  235. McElroy, James F.; Ballantine, Arne Watson. SOFC system producing reduced atmospheric carbon dioxide using a molten carbonated carbon dioxide pump. USP2011027883803.
  236. Vinegar,Harold J.; Berchenko,Ilya Emil; DeMartini,David Charles. Seismic monitoring of in situ conversion in a hydrocarbon containing formation. USP2006057051808.
  237. Sobolevskiy, Anatoly; Rossin, Joseph A.; Knapke, Michael J.. Selective catalytic reduction system and process for treating NOx emissions using a palladium and rhodium or ruthenium catalyst. USP2011077976805.
  238. Sobolevskiy, Anatoly; Rossin, Joseph A.; Knapke, Michael J.. Selective catalytic reduction system and process for treating NOx emissions using a zinc or titanium promoted palladium-zirconium catalyst. USP2011087988940.
  239. Sobolevskiy, Anatoly; Rossin, Joseph A.. Selective catalytic reduction system and process using a pre-sulfated zirconia binder. USP2010067744840.
  240. Viteri, Fermin; Anderson, Roger E.. Semi-closed Brayton cycle gas turbine power systems. USP2005066910335.
  241. Viteri, Fermin; Anderson, Roger E.. Semi-closed brayton cycle gas turbine power systems. USP2003096622470.
  242. Viteri, Fermin; Anderson, Roger E.. Semi-closed brayton cycle gas turbine power systems. USP2003106637183.
  243. Sawada, James A.; Babicki, Matthew L.; Chiu, Amy; Boulet, Andre; Roy, Surajit; Rode, Edward J.. Separation of carbon dioxide from other gases. USP2010117828877.
  244. Stegemeier, George Leo; Vinegar, Harold J.; Wellington, Scott Lee; de Rouffignac, Eric Pierre; Berchenko, Ilya Emil; Zhang, Etuan; Fowler, Thomas David; Ryan, Robert Charles. Situ thermal processing of a coal formation using pressure and/or temperature control. USP2005126973967.
  245. Wellington, Scott Lee; Vinegar, Harold J.; de Rouffignac, Eric Pierre; Berchenko, Ilya Emil; Stegemeier, George Leo; Zhang, Etuan; Shahin, Jr., Gordon Thomas; Fowler, Thomas David; Ryan, Robert Charl. Situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation to control product composition. USP2004066745832.
  246. McElroy, James Frederick. Solid oxide regenerative fuel cell with selective anode tail gas circulation. USP2005086924053.
  247. Vinegar,Harold J.; Karanikas,John Michael; Hansen,Kirk Samuel. Staged and/or patterned heating during in situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation. USP2006077073578.
  248. Ballantine, Arne; Gurunathan, Ranganathan; Pmsvvsv, Prasad; Vishnuvarjula, Anilkumar. Structure and method for fuel cell system where multiple fuel cells and power electronics feed loads in parallel allowing for integrated electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). USP2016109461320.
  249. Sobolevskiy, Anatoly; Rossin, Joseph A.. System and method for selective catalytic reduction of nitrogen oxides in combustion exhaust gases. USP2014048691170.
  250. Shurtleff, Kevin; Ladd, Eric; Patton, John; Brydon, Chris; Pearson, Ken. System for generating electricity from a chemical hydride. USP2010017648786.
  251. Shurtleff, Kevin; Ladd, Eric; Patton, John; Brydon, Chris; Pearson, Ken. System for generating hydrogen from a chemical hydride. USP2010017651542.
  252. Chandran, Ravi; Mansour, Momtaz N.. System integration of a steam reformer and fuel cell. USP2003046548197.
  253. Chandran, Ravi; Mansour, Momtaz N.. System integration of a steam reformer and gas turbine. USP2005086923004.
  254. Chandran,Ravi; Mansour,Momtaz N.. System integration of a steam reformer and gas turbine. USP2007097272934.
  255. Keefer, Bowie G.; McLean, Christopher R.; Brown, Michael J.. System that includes a fuel cell and an oxygen gas delivery system. USP2010077758988.
  256. Keefer, Bowie G.; Sawada, James A.; Johannes, Erik P.; Roy, Surajit; Brown, Michael J.. Systems and processes for providing hydrogen to fuel cells. USP2010037674539.
  257. Vinegar, Harold J.. Thermal processes for subsurface formations. USP2013118579031.
  258. Vinegar, Harold J.; Picha, Mark Gregory; Schoeling, Lanny Gene. Thermal processes for subsurface formations. USP2010017640980.
  259. Vinegar,Harold J.; Veenstra,Peter; Giles,Steven Paul; Sandberg,Chester L.; Rambow,Frederick Henry Kreisler; Harris,Christopher Kelvin; Schoeling,Lanny Gene; Picha,Mark Gregory; Zhang,Etuan; Beer,Gary. Thermal processes for subsurface formations. USP2006107121342.
  260. Vinegar,Harold J.; Veenstra,Peter; Giles,Steven Paul; Sandberg,Chester L.; Rambow,Frederick Henry Kreisler; Harris,Christopher Kelvin; Schoeling,Lanny Gene; Picha,Mark Gregory; Zhang,Etuan; Beer,Gary; Carl, Jr.,Frederick Gordon; Bai,Taixu; Kim,Dong Sub; Fairbanks,Michael David; Sanz,Guillermo Pastor. Thermal processes for subsurface formations. USP2008047360588.
  261. de Rouffignac, Eric Pierre; Vinegar, Harold J.; Wellington, Scott Lee; Berchenko, Ilya Emil; Stegemeier, George Leo; Zhang, Etuan; Shahin, Jr., Gordon Thomas; Fowler, Thomas David; Ryan, Robert Charl. Thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation to increase a permeability of the formation. USP2005106953087.
  262. Sumnu Dindoruk,Meliha Deniz; de Rouffignac,Eric Pierre; Karanikas,John Michael; Vinegar,Harold J.; Wellington,Scott Lee. Thermal processing of a relatively permeable formation. USP2006016991036.
  263. de Rouffignac,Eric Pierre; Berchenko,Ilya Emil; Fowler,Thomas David; Ryan,Robert Charles; Shahin, Jr.,Gordon Thomas; Stegemeier,George Leo; Vinegar,Harold J.; Wellington,Scott Lee; Zhang,Etuan. Thermal processing of an oil shale formation to increase permeability of the formation. USP2006057040397.
  264. Vinegar,Harold J.; de Rouffignac,Eric Pierre; Madgavkar,Ajay Madhav; Maher,Kevin Albert; McKinzie, II,Billy John; Palfreyman,Bruce Donald; Ryan,Robert Charles; Stegemeier,George Leo; Ward,John Michae. Treatment of a hydrocarbon containing formation after heating. USP2006107128153.
  265. Vinegar, Harold J.; Maher, Kevin Albert; Wellington, Scott Lee. Upgrading and mining of coal. USP2005116969123.
  266. Sandberg, Chester Ledlie; Vinegar, Harold J.; Harris, Christopher Kelvin; Son, Jaime Santos; Carl, Jr., Fredrick Gordon. Variable frequency temperature limited heaters. USP2012078224163.
  267. Gottmann, Matthias; Perry, Martin. Voltage lead jumper connected fuel cell columns. USP2015038968958.
  268. Hartman,Paul Harvey. Wind turbine and energy distribution system. USP2008027329099.
  269. Pronske, Keith L.; Anderson, Roger E.; Viteri, Fermin. Zero emissions closed rankine cycle power system. USP2011027882692.