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콩 Isoflavone의 생리활성 기능과 함량 변이

Physiological Function of Isoflavones and Their Genetic and Environmental Variations in Soybean


Soyfoods have potential roles in the prevention and treatment of chronic diseases, most notably cancer, osteoporosis, and heart disease. There is evidence that carcinogenesis are supressed by isolated soybean derived products in vivo such as a protease inhibitor, phytic acid, saponins and isoflavones. It is believed that supplementation of human diets with soybean products markedly reduces human cancer mortality rates. Especially, recent papers recognize the potential benefit of soybean isoflavone components for reducing the risk of various cancers. Isoflavones exhibit a multitude of medicinal effects that influence cell growth and regulation, which may have potential value in the prevention and treatment of cancer. In addition to potential biological effects, soybean isoflavones have the important physiological functions such as the induction of Bradyrizobium japonicum nod genes and the responses of soybean tissues to infection by Phytophthora megasperma as well as biochemical activities such as antifungal and antibacterial actions. Genistin, daidzin, glycitin and their aglycone (genistein, daidzein, glycitein) are the principal isoflavones found in soybean. Malonyl and acetyl forms have also been detected but they are thermally unstable and are usually transformed during the processing in glucoside form. Most soy products, with the exception of soy sauce, alcohol-extracted soy protein concentrate, and soy protein isolate, have total isoflavone concentrations similar to those in the whole soybean. Soybean-containing diets inhibit mammary tumorigenesis in animal models of breast cancer, therefore, it is possible that dietary isoflavones are an important factor accounting for the lower incidence and mortality from breast cancer. Of the total soybean seed isoflavones, $80\~90\%$ were located in cotyledons, with the remainder in the hypocotyls. The hypocotyls had a higher concentrations of isoflavones on a weight basis compared with cotyledons. Isoflavone contents were influenced by genetics, crop years, and growth locations. The effect of crop year had a greater impact on the isoflavone contents than that of location. The climate condition might be the attribution factor to variation in isoflavone contents. Also, while the isoflavone content of cotyledons exhibited large variations in response to high temperature during seed development, hypocotyls showed high concentration in isoflavone content. So, it is concluded that one of the factors affecting isoflavone content in soybean seeds is temperature during seed development. High temperature, especially in maturity stage, causes lower isoflavone content in soybean seed. It is also suggested that there may exist a different mechanism to maintain isoflavone contents between cotyledon and seed hypocotyls. In a conclusion, soy foods may be able to have a significant beneficial impact on public health.

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  1. 2003. "Effects of Artificial Stomach Fluid and Digestive Enzymes on the Aglycone Isoflavone Contents of Soybean and Black Bean (Rhynchosia Molubilis : Yak-Kong)" 韓國營養學會誌 = The Korean journal of nutrition., 36(1): 32~39 
  2. 2004. "Acetycholinesterase Inhibiting Effect and Free Radical Scavenging Effect of Soybean(Glycine max) and Yak-Kong(Rhynchosia nolubilis)" 東아시아食生活學會誌 = Journal of the East Asian Society of Dietary Life, 14(1): 64~69 


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