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Abstract

We performed in vitro and in vivo studies to know whether the inhibitory effects of ginsenosides on $5-HT_{3A}$ receptor channel acctivity are coupled to anti-nausea and anti-vomiting action. In vitro study, we investigated the effect of compound K (CK) and M4, which are ginsenoside metabolites, on human $5-HT_{3A}$ receptor channel activity expressed in Xenopus oocytes using two-electrode voltage clamp technique. Treatment of CK or M4 themselves had no effect in both oocytes injected with $H_2O\;and\;5-HT_{3A}$ receptor cRNA. In oocytes injected with $5- HT_{3A}$ receptor cRNA, M4 treatment inhibited more potently 5-HT-induced inward peak current $(I_{5-HT})$ than CK with dose-dependent and reversible manner. The half-inhibitory concentrations $(IC_{50})$ of CK and M4 were $36.9\;\pm\;10.1\;and\;7.3\;\pm\;2.2\;{\mu}M$, respectively. The inhibition of $I_{5-HT}$ by M4 was non-competitive and voltage-independent. These results indicate that M4 might regulate $5-HT_{3A}$ receptors. In vivo experiments, injection of cisplatin (7.5 mg/kg, i.v.) induced both nausea and vomiting with 1 h latency. These episodes reached to peak after 2 h and persisted for 4 h. Pre-treatment of GTS (500 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly reduced cisplatin-induced nausea and vomiting by $51\;\pm\;8.4\;and\;48.8\;\pm\;6.4\%$ during 4 h compared to GIS­untreated group, respectively. These results show the possibility that in vitro inhibition of $5-HT_{3A}$ receptor channel activity by ginsenosides might be coupled to in vivo anti-emetic activity.

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