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논문 상세정보

Deep-sea Hydrothermal Vents: Ecology and Evolution

Abstract

The discovery of deep-sea hydrothermal vents and their ecosystems is a monumental landmark in the history of Ocean Sciences. Deep-sea hydrothermal vents are scattered along the global mid-ocean ridges and back-arc basins. Under sea volcanic phenomena related to underlying magma activities along mid-ocean ridges generate extreme habitats for highly specialized communities of animals. Multidisciplinary research efforts during past three decades since the first discovery of hydrothermal vents along the Galapagos Rift in 1977 revealed fundamental components of physiology, ecology, and evolution of specialized vent communities of micro and macro fauna. Heterogeneous regional geological settings and tectonic plate history have been considered as important geophysical and evolutionary factors for current patterns of taxonomic composition and distribution of vent faunas among venting sites in the World Ocean basins. It was found that these communities are based on primary production of chemosynthetic bacteria which directly utilize reduced compounds, mostly $H_2S$ and $CH_4$, mixed in vent fluids. Symbioses between these bacteria and their hosts, vent invertebrates, are foundation of the vent ecosystem. Gene flow and population genetic studies in parallel with larval biology began to unveil hidden dispersal barrier under deep sea as well as various dispersal characteristics cross taxa. Comparative molecular phylogenetics of vent animals revealed that vent faunas are closely related to those of cold-water seeps in general. In perspective additional interesting discoveries are anticipated particularly with further refined and expanded studies aided by new instrumental technologies.

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