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한국 동쪽 대륙주변부의 구조적 진화와 동해의 형성

Structural Evolution of the Eastern Margin of Korea: Implications for the Opening of the East Sea (Japan Sea)

초록

해양탄성파 프로파일을 정밀수심 및 자력자료와 함께 해석하여, 일본열도가 분리되어 동해가 형성된 한반도의 대륙 주변부에서 진행된 리프팅과 지각의 분리 과정을 연구하였다. 한반도의 주변부는 바다쪽으로 리프트분지와 융기된 리프트 측면부, 그리고 경사가 급한 대륙사면이 연속된, 비활성 대륙주변부에서 전형적으로 볼 수 있는 기본적인 리프트구조로 이루어져 있다. 북쪽지역에서는 한반도로부터 연장되고 부분적으로 분절된 대륙지각인 한국대지에서 리프팅이 발생하였다. 한국대지는 상대적으로 넓은 신장지역을 제공하여 많은 수의 리프트를 형성하였다. 한국대지 내에서 두 개의 눈에 띄는 리프트 분지(온누리와 반달 분지)는 주된 synthetic 단층과 더 작은 규모의 antithetic 단층에 의해 형성되어 넓고 대칭적인 구조를 갖는다. 이들 분지에서 변위가 큰 경계단층지역은 볼록한 경사면을 가지며 주향방향으로 지그재그 모양을 보인다. 대조적으로, 남쪽 주변부에는 비대칭적인 반지구로서 하나의 좁은 리프트분지(후포 분지)가 길게 형성되어 있다. 한반도 주변부의 리프팅은 주향이동 운동에 의한 변위가 아니라 대륙사면의 기저부를 따라 발생하였다고 유추되는 지각의 분리에 수직하는 서쪽 및 남동방향의 신장의 결과인 정단층작용에 의해 주로 유도되었다고 해석된다. 리프팅 동안에는 화산작용이 거의 없었으나 해저면 확장의 초기단계에서는 상당한 화산작용이 수반되었으며 이것은 특히 남쪽지역에서 리프트에 의해 유도되는 맨틀대류뿐만 아니라 슬랩에 의해 유도되는 약권의 상승을 반영한다고 보여 진다. 동해의 생성과 관련된 한반도 주변부의 구조 및 화산운동은 후열도 환경에서의 약권 상승에 의해 영향을 받는 화산작용을 수반한 비활성 대륙주변부에서 일어나는 과정으로 설명할 수 있다고 해석된다.

Abstract

We interpreted marine seismic profiles in conjunction with swath bathymetric and magnetic data to investigate rifting to breakup processes at the Korean margin leading to the separation of the Japan Arc. The Korean margin is rimmed by fundamental elements of rift architecture comprizing a seaward succession of a rift basin and an uplifted rift flank passing into the slope, typical of a passive continental margin. In the northern part, rifting occurred in the Korea Plateau, a continental fragment extended and partially segmented from the Korean Peninsula, that provided a relatively broader zone of extension resulting in a number of rifts. Two distinguished rift basins (Onnuri and Bandal Basins) in the Korea Plateau we bounded by major synthetic and smaller antithetic faults, creating wide and symmetric profiles. The large-offset border fault zones of these basins have convex dip slopes and demonstrate a zig-zag arrangement along strike. In contrast, the southern margin is engraved along its length with a single narrow rift basin (Hupo Basin) that is an elongated asymmetric half-graben. Rifting at the Korean margin was primarily controlled by normal faulting resulting from extension in the west and southeast directions orthogonal to the inferred line of breakup along the base of the slope rather than strike-slip deformation. Although rifting involved no significant volcanism, the inception of sea floor spreading documents a pronounced volcanic phase which seems to reflect slab-induced asthenospheric upwelling as well as rift-induced convection particularly in the narrow southern margin. We suggest that structural and igneous evolution of the Korean margin can be explained by the processes occurring at the passive continental margin with magmatism intensified by asthenospheric upwelling in a back-arc setting.

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이 논문을 인용한 문헌 (1)

  1. 1. 신영홍, 박종욱, 박필호 2006. "한반도 남부 모호면의 변형 구조" 한국지구과학회지 = Journal of the Korean Earth Science Society, 27(6): 620~642 

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