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Smaller size and higher integration of electronic systems make narrower interconnect pitch not only in chip-level but also in package-level. Moreover electronic systems are required to operate in harsher conditions, that is, higher current / voltage, elevated temperature / humidity, and complex chemical contaminants. Under these severe circumstances, electronic components respond to applied voltages by electrochemically ionization of metals and conducting filament forms between anode and cathode across a nonmetallic medium. This phenomenon is called as the electrochemical migration. Many kinds of metal (Cu, Ag, SnPb, Sn etc) using in electronic packages are failed by ECM. Eutectic SnPb which is used in various electronic packaging structures, that is, printed circuit boards, plastic-encapsulated packages, organic display panels, and tape chip carriers, chip-on-films etc. And the material for soldering (eutectic SnPb) using in electronic package easily makes insulation failure by ECM. In real PCB system, not only metals but also many chemical species are included. And these chemical species act as resources of contamination. Model test systems were developed to characterize the migration phenomena without contamination effect. The serpentine-shape pattern was developed for analyzing relationship of applied voltage bias and failure lifetime by the temperature / humidity biased(THB) test.

참고문헌 (9)

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  4. Shin-Bok Lee, Young-Ran Yoo, Ja-Young Jung, Young- Bae Park, Young-Sik Kim and Young-Chang Joo, 'Electrochemical migration characteristics of eutectic SnPb solder alloy in printed circuit board,' Thin Solid Films, 504(1-2), 294 (2006) 
  5. Shin-Bok Lee, Ja-Young Jung, Young-Ran Yoo, Young- Bae Park, Young-Sik Kim, and Young-Chang Joo, 'Dominant Migration Element in Electrochemical Migration of Eutectic SnPb Solder Alloy,' 56th Electronic Components & Technology Conference, p. 621, San Diego, CA, U.S.A., May 30-June 2 (2006) 
  6. G. Harsanyi, 'Copper may destroy chip-level reliability: handle with care-mechanism and conditions for copper migrated resistive short formation,' IEEE Electron Device Letters, 20(1), 5 (1999) 
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