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논문 상세정보

키틴/키토산 가수분해효소의 분류 및 특성

Classification and Characteristics of Chitin/Chitosan Hydrolases

초록

키틴과 그 탈아세틸화된 형태인 키토산은 지구 상에 가장 풍부하게 존재하는 바이오매스의 하나이다. 키틴과 키토산은 항균활성, 면역증강, 중금속 흡착 등 다양한 생리활성을 보이고 있으며 식품, 의약품, 환경산업 등에서 다양하게 응용되고 있다. 이러한 키틴/키토산을 가수분해하는 효소들과 그 3차구조, 유전자들이 세균, 고세균, 진핵생물등 모든 생물종에서 보고되어 왔다. 탄수화물을 가수분해하는 효소들은 그 아미노산 서열에 따라 CAZy (Carbohydrate Active Enzymes) 데이터베이스에 분류되었는데 흥미롭게도 최근까지 키틴가수분해효소와 키토산가수분해효소들은 14개의 glycosyl hydrolase (GH) family들로 분류되어 있다(GH2, GH5, GH7, GH8, GH18, GH19, GH20, GH46, GH48, GH73, GH75, GH80, GH84, GH85). 본 총설에서는 새로운 유전자원를 찾기위한 한 방편으로서 최근에 새롭게 분류된 glycosyl hydrolase family의 분류법에 따라 각각의 GH family에 속하는 키틴/키토산가수분해효소의 종류 및 구조, 그리고 그 효소적 특징에 대하여 논하고자 한다.

Abstract

Chitin and chitosan, which is deacetylated form of chitin, are one of the most abundant biomass on the earth. They showed various biological activities including antimicrobial activity, heavy metal chelating, immune system activation, and have very diverse applications in food, pharmaceutical, medicinal, and environmental industry. There have been reported many chitin/chitosan-hydrolyzing enzymes, their structures and genes from three domains, archaea, bacteria, and eukarya. Carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes are classified in CAZy (Carbohydrate Active Enzymes) database according to their amino acid sequence similarity. Interestingly, chitinases and chitosanases are classified in various glycosyl hydrolase(GH) families, GH2, GH5, GH7, GH8, GH18, GH19, GH20, GH46, GH48, GH73, GH75, GH80, GH84, and GH85. Here, we review characteristics and structures of chitin/chitosan hydrolyzing enzymes according to glycosyl hydrolase families in order to provide information about gene mining.

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키틴분해효소
키틴분해효소가 기질에 작용하는 메커니즘 중 retaining 방식이란 무엇인가?
하나의 음이온성 아미노산이 친핵체(nucleophile)로 작용하고 다른 하나의 음이온성 아미노산(주로 Glu)이 산/염기로 작용하여 가수 분해 후 anomeric form이 유지되는 방식이다.

앞서 말한 대로 키틴분해효소가 기질에 작용하는 메커니즘을 크게 두가지로 나눌 수 있는데 GH18 키틴분해효소는 retaining, GH19 키틴분해효소는 inverting 메커니즘[3,11]을 통해 당쇄 결합을 분해하는 것으로 밝혀졌다. Retaining과 inverting 방식 모두 두 개의 음이온성 아미노산이 반응에 관여하는데 retaining 방식은 하나의 음이온성 아미노산이 친핵체(nucleophile)로 작용하고 다른 하나의 음이온성 아미노산(주로 Glu)이 산/염기로 작용하여 가수 분해 후 anomeric form이 유지되는 방식이다. 반대로 inverting 방식은 두 개의 음이온성 아미노산이 모두 산/염기로 작용하여 가수분해 후 anomeric form이 변하는 방식이다(Table 1).

키토산
키토산의 어떤 생리 기능성을 가지고 있는가?
항균활성[1] , 중금속 흡착능력[6], 면역증강효과[15], 바이오필름형성[5] 등

키틴은 매년 해양 무척추동물, 곤충, 곰팡이 등에 의해 1 × 109톤 정도가 생합성되고 있으며 곰팡이의 세포벽, 절족류, 강장동물, 연체동물 및 선충류 등 하등동물 껍질, 균류와 조류 등 하등식물의 세포벽에 존재한다. 반면 자연계중에 일부 곰팡이의 세포벽[70]에 존재하며 키틴의 탈아세틸화를 통해 만들어지는 키토산(chitosan)은 항균활성[1] , 중금속 흡착능력[6], 면역증강효과[15], 바이오필름형성[5] 등 다양한 생리 기능성 때문에 의약품 원료 및 기능성 식품 등으로 많은 주목을 받아왔다.

키틴
키틴이란?
β-D-glucose의 C-2 hydroxyl기가 acetylamino기로 치환된 N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (GlcNAc)이 (β1→4) 결합에 의해 구성된 고분자 화합물

키틴(chitin)은 β-D-glucose의 C-2 hydroxyl기가 acetylamino기로 치환된 N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (GlcNAc)이 (β1→4) 결합에 의해 구성된 고분자 화합물로서 지구상에 셀룰로스 다음으로 가장 많이 생산되는 바이오매스이다. 키틴은 매년 해양 무척추동물, 곤충, 곰팡이 등에 의해 1 × 109톤 정도가 생합성되고 있으며 곰팡이의 세포벽, 절족류, 강장동물, 연체동물 및 선충류 등 하등동물 껍질, 균류와 조류 등 하등식물의 세포벽에 존재한다.

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