본 논문은 중력모형을 이용해서 환경규제가 한국의 수출량, 총무역량 및 국제경쟁력에 어떤 영향을 미치는가를 규명해 보는 것이다. 고정효과 추정방법을 이용해서 전 산업, 비 환경오염산업, 16개 환경오염산업을 대상으로 추정하였으며, 자료는 한국과 교역량이 많은 120개 국가를 선정하여 2000년-2010년 사이의 산업패널자료와 환경성과지수(EPI)를 환경규제의 대리변수로 사용하였다. 분석 결과 한국과 교역상대국의 국내총생산량이 한국의 무역을 신장시키는데 큰 영향을 미친 변수라면, 교역상대국의 환경규제는 한국의 오염산업의 수출과 무역량을 감소시키고 국제경쟁력을 떨어뜨리는 무역장벽의 역할을 하는 것으로 나타났다. 그러나 분석기간 동안 비 오염산업에서는 이러한 환경규제효과가 극명하게 나타나지 않았다. 개별 산업에 대한 분석 결과 상당한 비중의 오염산업들이 교역상대국의 환경규제에 영향을 받는 것으로 나타났다. 이런 관점에서 동기간 사이에 한국의 무역에 있어서는 포터가설은 성립하지 않는 것으로 보인다.
This paper analyzes the three issues related to the effect of environmental regulations on the Korean trades with gravity equation model: the effect on the Korean exports, the bilateral trade flows between the Korea and the trade partners, and the Korean international competitiveness. For all three issues we carried the empirical tests with fixed effect estimation methods for total industries, non-pollution industries, pollution industries, and also 16 individual pollution industries. We use industry panel data for the 120 largest trading countries with Korea for the years 2000-2010. The Environmental Performance Index (EPI) is used as the proxy variable for the environmental regulation. The empirical result shows that while GDPs of both Korea and its trading partners are very important factors affecting positively the Korean trades for all industries, the environmental regulation of the importing country would be a definite trade barrier to the Korean pollution industries, but not a definite one for the non-pollution industries. In addition, the stricter environmental regulations of Korea's trade partners would weaken the Korean international competitiveness of Korean pollution industries. In this regard, the Porter Hypothesis would have not appeared in the Korean trades of pollution industries during the period observed in this study.
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