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논문 상세정보

초록

현재까지 곤충 항균 펩티드는 1980년에 세크로피아나방(Hyalophora cecropia) 번데기의 혈림프로부터 세크로핀(cecropin)이 처음으로 정제된 이후로 150개 이상의 펩티드가 분리되어 특성들이 보고되어 왔다. 그러므로 곤충은 항균 펩티드 선발을 위한 좋은 재료로서 고려되어 왔다. 곤충 항균 펩티드는 분자량이 작으며 양전하를 띠고 다양한 길이와 서열 및 구조를 갖는 양친매성의 특징을 갖는다. 곤충 항균 펩티드는 박테리아, 진균, 기생충, 그리고 바이러스와 같은 병원체들의 침입에 대항하여 곤충의 선천성 면역체계에서 중요한 역할을 수행한다. 대부분의 곤충 항균 펩티드들은 상처가 나거나 면역화 시 지방체와 다른 특정 조직들에서 유도 합성된다. 이어서 그 항균 펩티드들은 미생물들에 대항하여 작용하기 위해 혈림프로 분비되어 나온다. 이들 펩티드들은 항암활성을 포함하여 다양한 미생물들에 대해 광범위한 항균활성을 나타낸다. 곤충 항균 펩티드는 구조 및 서열상의 특징들에 기초하여 크게 4개의 패밀리로 나누어질 수 있다. 다시 말해서 α-나선형 펩티드, 시스테인-풍부 펩티드, 프롤린-풍부 펩티드, 그리고 글리신-풍부 펩티드/단백질이 그것이다. 예를 들면, 세크로핀, 곤충 디펜신(defensin), 프롤린-풍부 펩티드, 그리고 아타신(attacin)이 일반적인 곤충 항균 펩티드들인데, 글로베린(gloverin)과 모리신(moricin)은 나비목 종들에서만 확인되어 왔다. 본 총설에서는 곤충의 항균 펩티드들에 초점을 맞추어 곤충 항균 펩티드들의 적용 가능성 및 방향과 함께 현재의 지식들과 최근의 진전된 사항들에 대하여 논의하고자 한다.

Abstract

By this time, insect antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have been characterized more than 150 peptides since purification of cecropin in the hemolymph of pupae from Hyalophora cecropia in 1980. Therefore, it is considered that insects are good sources of AMP selection. Insect AMPs are small (low molecular weight) and cationic, and amphipathic with variable length, sequence, and structure. They perform a pivotal role on humoral immunity in the insect innate immune system against invading pathogens such as bacteria, fungi, parasites, and viruses. Most of the insect AMPs are induced rapidly in the fat bodies and other specific tissues of insects after septic injury or immune challenge. Then the AMPs subsequently released into the hemolymph to act against microorganisms. These peptides have a broad antimicrobial spectrum against various microbes including anticancer activities. Insect AMPs could be divided into four families based on their structures and sequences. That is the α-helical peptides, cysteine-rich peptides, proline-rich peptides, and glycine-rich peptides/proteins. For instance, cecropins, insect defensins, proline-rich peptides, and attacins are common insect AMPs, but gloverins and moricins have been identified only in lepidopteran species. This review focuses on AMPs from insects and discusses current knowledge and recent progress with potential applications of insect AMPs.

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