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Detection of Feigned Memory Impairment using Brain Oscillation and Event-related Potential

Abstract

Objective: The purpose of this study is to develop new method for detecting feigned memory impairment using theta oscillation of electroencephalogram (EEG). Background: It is estimated that many people claim feigned memory impairment after an accident for financial gain. Although recognition memory tests was used to detect feigned memory impairment, it has been shown that examinees can easily manipulate the test results. There are new studies to suggest new methods using event-related potential (ERP) to detect feigned memory impairment. However, the discrimination accuracy of these methods was not sufficient. Method: Thirty participants took a recognition memory test during both malingering and amnesia model condition while their EEGs were recoding. EEGs were recorded from F3, Fz, F4, Cz, P3, Pz, and P4 sites. Event-related potential (ERP) old/new effects were calculated from the difference between ERPs for old and new words. Theta wave was extracted from EEG using 4~8Hz band-pass filter, and event-related (ER) theta old/new effects were calculated from theta wave. Results: The big difference between two conditions was observed in ERP old/new effects and ER theta old/new effects measured at Cz and P3 site. The correlation between ERP old/new effect and ER theta old/new effect was as low as .22. The detection accuracy of feigned memory impairment was 74.4% when using only ERP old/new effect, and was 72.1% when using only ER theta old/new effect. When both were used, the accuracy increased to 83.7%. Conclusion: ERP old/new effect and ER theta old/new effect reflect different aspects of recognition memory. Therefore, using both effects will increase the accuracy of the detection of feigned memory impairment. Application: The results of the study will help to develop standardized tests for detecting feigned memory impairment.

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