본 연구는 그 동안 혼재되어 왔던 4차 산업 혁명의 개념과 관련 기술 들을 살펴보고 이로 인한 사회 경제적 변화와 영향 및 주요 국가의 4차 산업혁명에 대응하는 사례를 검토 하였다. 이를 기반으로 한국벤처기업이 4차 산업혁명에 대비하기 위한 SWOT 요인 도출 및 요인별 중요도 산출을 통해 정부 및 정책 입안자들에게 관련 정책 수립을 위한 방향 제시에 도움을 주고자 한다. 나아가 한국벤처기업 들에게는 글로벌 경쟁력 확보를 위한 추진 방향을 제시하고 이후에 진행할 학문적 심층 연구를 위해서도 기초적이고 체계적인 분석에 도움을 주는 것을 목적으로 한다. 연구를 위해 4차 산업 관련 분야에서 한국 벤처기업의 내부 역량과 외부 환경 변화 요인이 무엇인지를 파악하기 위해 기존 문헌 탐구와 자료 조사를 통해 총 21개의 SWOT 요인을 도출하여 이를 업계, 학계, 정책전문가 그룹으로 구분하여 델파이 조사를 통해 확정하였다. 또한 이를 체계적 의사결정 기법인 AHP 기법으로 항목별 중요도를 분석하였다. 분석 결과에 따르면 강점(48%)→기회(25%)→위협(16%)→약점(11%) 순으로 중요하게 여기고 있음을 보여 주었으며 세부 항목별 중요도 분석 결과에서는 총 21개 세부항목 중 상위 3개 항목으로는 '신속하고 유연한 사업화 능력, '플랫폼·빅데이터·비대면 서비스 활성화, 'ICT 인프라 구축 및 활용' 순으로 중요도가 높게 나타났다. 반면 하위 3개 항목으로는 '안정적인 거시 경제 및 SOC 기반', '세계적 보호무역 기조에 따른 해외시장 진출 어려움, '외국인 투자규모 절대 열세' 항목은 우선순위가 낮게 나타났다. 전문가 그룹별 견해 차이를 보기 위한 중요도 순위 검증 결과, 업계와 학계전문가는 상관관계가 높고 업계와 정책전문가는 중간 정도의 상관관계를 보여 큰 견해 차이가 없었으나 학계전문가와 정책전문가의 상관관계는 통계적으로 유의하지 않아(p<0.01) 중요도에 대한 견해 차이가 있는 것으로 분석 되었다. 이는 정책전문가는 강점 항목인 '신속하고 유연한 사업화'와 기회 항목인 '우수한 교육시스템 및 고급인력 보유', '신시장 창출'을 매우 중요하게 생각한 반면, 학계전문가는 강점 항목인 '정부 정책의 지원 부분'을 훨씬 중요하게 생각하는 차이에서 기인된 것으로 판단된다. 본 연구의 시사점은 한국벤처기업이 4차 산업혁명 분야에서 경쟁력을 확보하기 위해서는 강점과 기회요인의 해당 항목 들을 우선적으로 지원하는 정책이 필요함을 있음을 시사하고 있으며 또한 학계와 정책전문가 사이에 다른 견해를 보이고 있는 강점 요인과 기회 요인의 세부 항목 차이는 적극적으로 검토하여 정책에 반영할 필요가 있음을 의미한다고 볼 수 있다.
This study examines the concept and related technologies of the 4th industrial revolution that has been mixed so far and examines the socio-economic changes and influences resulting from it, and the cases of responding to the 4th industrial revolution in major countries. Based on this, by deriving SWOT factors and calculating the importance of each factor for Korean venture companies to prepare for the forth industrial revolution, it was intended to help the government and policymakers in suggesting directions for establishing related policies. Furthermore, the purpose of this study was to suggest a direction for securing global competitiveness to Korean venture entrepreneurs and to help with basic and systematic analysis for further academic in-depth research. For this study, a total of 21 items derived through extensive literature research and data research to understand what are the necessary competency factors for internal and external environmental changes in order for Korean venture companies to have global competitiveness in the era of the 4th Industrial Revolution. After reviewing SWOT factors by three expert groups and confirming them through Delphi survey, the importance of each item was analyzed by using AHP, a systematic decision-making technique. As a result of the analysis, it was shown that Strength(48%), Opportunity(25%), Threat(16%), Weakness(11%) were considered important in order. In terms of sub-items, 'quick and flexible commercialization capability', 'platform/big data/non-face-to-face service activation', and 'ICT infrastructure and it's utilization' were shown to be of the comparatively high importance. On the other hand, in the lower three items, 'macro-economic stability and social infrastructure', 'difficulty in entering overseas markets due to global protectionism', and 'absolutely inferior in foreign investment' were found to have low priority. As a result of the correlation verification by item to see differences in opinions by industry, academia, and policy expert groups, there was no significant difference of opinion, as industry and academic experts showed a high correlation and industry experts and policy experts showed a moderate correlation. The correlation between the academic and policy experts was not statistically significant (p<0.01), so it was analyzed that there was a difference of opinion on importance. This was due to the fact that policy experts highly valued 'quick and flexible commercialization', which are strengths, and 'excellent educational system and high-quality manpower' and 'creation of new markets' which are opportunity items, while academic experts placed great importance on 'support part of government policy', which are strengths. The implication of this study is that in order for Korean venture companies to secure competitiveness in the field of the 4th industrial revolution, it is necessary to have a policy that preferentially supports the relevant items of strengths and opportunity factors. The difference in the details of strength factors and opportunity factors, which shows a high level of variability, suggests that it is necessary to actively review it and reflect it in the policy.
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