Objective: This study aimed to investigate the trajectory of maternal parenting stress during infancy according to the employment status of mothers when each year's depression was controlled and examine the longitudinal effects of parenting stress on affective parenting and socioemotional developmental outcomes for preschoolers. Methods: Using latent growth modeling, the first 4 waves of panel data collected from 2,078 mothers and their babies were analyzed. This nationwide data was provided from the 2008 Panel Study on Korean Children, conducted by the Korea Institute of Child Care and Education. Results: First, maternal parenting stress showed a linear increasing pattern, and there were individual differences in intercept and slope. Second, when each year's maternal depression was controlled, the intercept of parenting stress was lower, but the rate of increase was higher. In multiple group analyses, this increasing pattern of parenting stress was significant only in unemployed mothers. Lastly, the increase of unemployed mothers' parenting stress had direct effects on child emotionality and peer interaction and had an indirect effect on child peer interaction (mediated by affective parenting). Conclusion: The current study verified that the longitudinal effects of increasing parenting stress of unemployed mothers on affective parenting and child socioemotional development when maternal depression level was controlled. These results imply that we need to pay more attention to emotional health and resources of unemployed mothers and provide them with social support as well as employed mothers.
부모 역할을 수행함으로써 느끼는 스트레스의 한 유형으로, 자녀의 양육으로 인하여 곤란함이나 부담감을 인지하는 정도를 의미한다
영아기 자녀를 가진 어머니들에게 나타날 수 있는 정서적 위험 요인으로는 양육스트레스 (parenting stress)를 들 수 있다. 양육스트레스는 부모 역할을 수행함으로써 느끼는 스트레스의 한 유형으로, 자녀의 양육으로 인하여 곤란함이나 부담감을 인지하는 정도를 의미한다 (Coplan, Bowker, & Cooper, 2003). 출산과 함께 신체적 · 심리적으로 큰 변화를 경험하고, 수유, 배변, 수면 등과 관련된 실제 적인 돌봄 요구가 가장 큰 시기인 영아기에는 주양육자인 어머니의 양육부담이 가중될 수 있다.
영아의 일차적 환경으로서의 주양육자의 역할이 중요하게 여겨지는데 무엇을 촉진시키기에 그러한가?
부모의 민감하고 반응적인 상호작용이 자녀의 건강한 발달을 촉진시키는 것
영아는 생애 초기 주양육자와의 상호작용을 통하여 애착을 형성하고, 이 시기 관계의 질은 이후 사회정서발달 및 대인관계의 기초(Fonagy, Gergely, Jurist, & Target, 2002; Grossmann, Grossmann, & Waters, 2005)가 된다는 점에서 영아의 일차적 환경으로서의 주양육자의 역할이 중요하게 여겨지고 있다. 특히 부모의 민감하고 반응적인 상호작용이 자녀의 건강한 발달을 촉진시키는 것으로 알려져 왔다(Music, 2011). 선행연구 들을 살펴보면, 어머니가 더 민감하게 반응할수록 유아는 자신의 부정적 정서를 더 잘 다룰 수 있으며, 덜 반응적인 어머니의 유아는 부정적 정서를 더 많이 경험하고 부정적 정서로 부터 회복되는 시간도 더 오래 걸리는 것으로 나타났다(Field, Diego, & Hernandez-Reif, 2006).
자녀의 다양한 발달 영역에 직접 영향을 미치기도 하고, 일상적 양육행동을 통해 영아와의 상호작용에 반영됨으로써 간접적으로 영향을 미칠 수도 있다
어머니의 높은 양육스트레스는 자녀의 다양한 발달 영역에 직접 영향을 미치기도 하고, 일상적 양육행동을 통해 영아와의 상호작용에 반영됨으로써 간접적으로 영향을 미칠 수도 있다(Crnic, Gaze, & Ho man, 2005). 영아기 자녀를 둔 어머니의 양육스트레스는 영아의 불안정 애착 및 문제행동과 같은 정서행동문제에 직접적인 영향을 미치는 것으로 나타났다 (Cummings, Davies, & Campbell, 2000).
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