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우리나라 유아 및 학령기 아동의 외식패턴에 따른 식사의 질 평가: 2016-2018 국민건강영양조사 자료 활용

Evaluation of diet quality according to the eating-out patterns of preschoolers and school-aged children in South Korea: based on data from the 2016-2018 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

Journal of nutrition and health v.54 no.2 , 2021년, pp.165 - 178  
초록

본 연구는 2016-2018년도 국민건강영양조사 자료를 활용하여 우리나라 만 3-11세 유아 및 학령기 아동 중 저녁식사로 외식을 한 306명을 대상으로 24가지 식품군별 에너지 섭취 기여율을 계산하여 외식패턴을 도출하고, 패턴별로 인구사회학적 특성과 에너지 및 영양소 섭취 수준을 비교함으로써 유아 및 학령기 아동의 외식패턴과 식사의 질 관계를 규명하고자 하였다. 군집분석을 실시한 결과, 밥류 및 기타 잡곡류의 에너지 섭취 기여율만 높은 밥중심 (53%) 패턴과 면류, 떡류, 피자·햄버거·튀김류, 육류 및 그 제품 등의 에너지 섭취 기여율이 높은 혼합식 패턴 (47%)이 도출되었다. 주요 영양소 열량 구성비는 혼합식 패턴 (48:20:31)이 밥중심 패턴 (62:15:21)보다 탄수화물 에너지 섭취 비율이 낮고, 지방 에너지 섭취 비율이 높았다. 단백질, 나트륨의 평균 섭취는 두 패턴 모두 섭취기준을 2배 이상 초과하였고, 비타민 A와 칼슘은 두 패턴 모두 섭취기준 대비 2/3 미만 수준에 불과하였다. 혼합식 패턴은 에너지, 리보플라빈, 나이아신, 인, 철의 섭취량이 모두 섭취기준을 초과한 반면, 밥중심 패턴은 수분, 식이섬유, 비타민 C, 칼륨의 섭취량이 모두 섭취기준 대비 절반 수준이거나 그 미만으로 매우 낮았다. 비타민 A, 리보플라빈, 나이아신, 비타민 C, 칼슘, 인의 영양소 적정 섭취비와 평균 영양소 적정 섭취비는 혼합식 패턴이 밥중심 패턴보다 높았다. 영양 질적 지수는 리보플라빈, 나이아신, 비타민 C, 칼슘에서 혼합식 패턴이 밥중심 패턴보다 높았으나, 비타민 A, 비타민 C, 칼슘은 두 패턴 모두 1.0 미만으로 영양소 밀도가 부족했다. 식품군섭취패턴은 두 패턴 모두 1순위가 GMV (곡류군 + 육류군 + 채소군) 유형이었으나 밥중심 패턴이 55.8%로 혼합식 패턴 33.6% 보다 더 많았다. 종합하면, 우리나라 유아 및 학령기 아동의 외식을 통한 식사의 질은 패턴에 따라 양상은 달랐으나, 두 패턴 모두 양적 그리고 질적으로 적정하지 않았다. 따라서 외식에서 이러한 문제점을 보완한 어린이용 메뉴의 개발 및 정책적으로 외식에서의 어린이용 메뉴에 대한 기준을 세우는 것이 시급하다. 또한, 유아 및 학령기 아동과 부모를 대상으로 건강한 식품 선택에 관한 교육이 병행될 필요가 있다.

Abstract

Purpose: This study examined the eating-out patterns of Korean infants and school-aged children and compared diet quality. Methods: Data were obtained from the 2016-2018 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The subjects were 306 children aged 3 to 11 years old that ate dinner at restaurants. Percentage energy intakes of 24 food groups were calculated, and cluster analysis was used to identify eating-out patterns. Diet quality was assessed by calculating percentage energy and nutrient intakes using one-third of the 2015 Dietary Reference Intakes for Korean (KDRIs), nutrient adequacy ratio (NAR), mean adequacy ratio (MAR), and index of nutritional quality (INQ). Results: Cluster analysis identified 2 eating-out patterns, that is, a 'rice-centered' (53%) and a 'mixed diet' (47%) pattern. For those with the mixed diet pattern, ratios of carbohydrates, protein, and fat to total calories were 48:20:31, whereas for the rice-centered pattern, ratios were 62:15:21 (p < 0.001). Intakes of energy and most nutrients in the mixed diet pattern were excessive, but the intakes of the most nutrients in the rice-centered pattern were much lower than their KDRIs. MARs were higher for the mixed diet pattern than the rice-centered pattern (0.74 vs. 0.66) (p < 0.001), and INQs for vitamin C (p = 0.007) and calcium (p = 0.018) were lower for the rice-centered pattern, whereas INQ for iron (p = 0.003) was lower for the mixed diet pattern. Conclusion: The quality of meals for infants and school-aged children depended on eating-out patterns, but the rice-centered and mixed diet patterns both failed to provide an appropriately balanced meal pattern. The results of this study suggest that healthy menus need to be developed for children in restaurants.

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이 논문을 인용한 문헌 (1)

  1. 1. 한규상, 양은주 2021. "광주광역시 유아의 체중별 식행동과 영양지수" 韓國食生活文化學會誌 = Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture, 36(4): 412~420 

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