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국소진행성 직장암의 수술 전 동시화학방사선요법의 결과

Results of Preoperative Concurrent Chemoradiotherapy for Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer

초록

목 적: 국소적으로 진행된 직장암환자에서 수술 전 동시화학방사선요법을 시행한 환자들의 항문 괄약근 보존율과 병기 강하율 등을 분석하고자 후향적 임상 연구를 시행하였다. 대상 및 방법: 2002년 1월부터 2005년 12월까지 조직학적으로 확진된 직장암 환자 중, 병기가 T2 이상이거나 림프절 전이가 있는 환자를 대상으로 하였다. 한림대학교 성심병원 방사선종양학과에서 수술 전 동시화학방사선요법을 시행 받은 36명 중, 본원에서 수술을 시행한 26명을 대상으로 연구를 시행하였다. 환자들은 수술 전 병기결정을 위한 검사를 시행하였고 방사선치료는 CT를 촬영하여 치료계획을 세웠으며 매일 1.8 Gy로 주 5회, 총 방사선 조사량 $45.0{\sim}52.2\;Gy$까지 3차원 방사선치료 방법으로 시행하였으며, 방사선치료 첫째 주와 다섯째 주에 5-FU와 leucovorine을 동시 투여하였다. 수술은 동시화학방사선요법 종료 후 약 $2{\sim}4$주경에 시행하였다. 결 과: 대상 환자의 연령 중앙값은 61.9세($34{\sim}78$)였으며, 남자가 21명, 여자가 5명이었고 추적 관찰 기간의 중앙값은 28개월($11{\sim}44$)이었다. 모든 환자에서 절제연 음성인 근치절제가 가능하였으나 병리적으로 완전 반응을 보인 경우는 없었다. 수술은 3예에서 복회음부 절제술을, 나머지 23예에서 하전방절제술이 시행되어 괄약근 보존율은 88.5% (23/26)였다. 수술 후 병기 강하는 12예로 병기 강하율은 46.2%였으며 19예에서 종양 크기가 감소되어 종양크기 감소율은 73%였다. 국소 재발이 1명, 원격 전이가 3명에서 관찰되었으며 3년 무재발 생존율은 96.7%, 3년 무전이 생존율은 87%, 그리고 3년 무진행 생존율은 83.1%였다. 치료와 관련된 급성 독성으로는 Grade 3 & 4 빈혈 각각 1예, Grade 3 백혈구 감소증 1예, Grade 3 장폐색 1예가 관찰되었다. 결 론: 직장암 환자들에서 수술 전 동시화학방사선요법은 근치적 수술을 시행한 경우 높은 괄약근보존율과 수술 후 병기감소율을 보였으며 치료에 따른 독성도 대부분 경미하고 높은 순응도를 보여 효과적인 방법으로 판단되며 앞으로 많은 환자들을 대상으로 장기간에 걸친 추적 관찰을 요한다.

Abstract

[ $\underline{Purpose}$ ]: We performed a retrospective non-randomized clinical study of locally advanced rectal cancer, to evaluate the anal sphincter preservation rates, down staging rates and survival rates of preoperative chemoradiotherapy. $\underline{Materials\;and\;Methods}$: From January 2002 to December 2005, patients with pathologically confirmed rectal cancer with clinical stage T2 or higher, or patients with lymph node metastasis were enrolled in this study. A preoperative staging work-up was conducted in 36 patients. All patients were treated with preoperative chemoradiotherapy, and curative resection was performed for 26 patients at Hallym University Sacred Heart Hospital. Radiotherapy treatment planning was conducted with the use of planning CT for all patients. A total dose of $45.0{\sim}52.2\;Gy$ conventionally fractionated three-dimensional radiotherapy was delivered to the whole pelvis. Chemotherapy was given at the first and fifth week of radiation therapy with continuous infusion i.v. 5-FU (Fluorouracil) and LV (Leucovorine). Surgical resection was performed 2 to 4 weeks after the completion of the chemoradiotherapy regimen. $\underline{Results}$: The complete resection rate with negative resection margin was 100% (26/26). However, a pathologically complete response was not seen after curative resection. Surgery was done by LAR (low anterior resection) in 23 patients and APR (abdomino-perineal resection) in 3 patients. The sphincter preservation rate was 88.5% (23/26), down staging of the tumor occurred in 12 patients (46.2%) and down-sizing of the tumor occurred in 19 patients (73%). Local recurrence after surgical resection developed in 1 patient, and distant metastasis developed in 3 patients. The local recurrence free survival rate, distant metastasis free survival rate, and progression free survival rate were 96.7%, 87% and 83.1%, respectively. Treatment related toxicity was minimal except for one grade 3, one grade 4 anemia, one grade 3 leukopenia, and one grade 3 ileus. $\underline{Conclusion}$: Preoperative concurrent chmoradiotherapy for locally advanced rectal cancer seems to have some potential benefits: high sphincter preservation and down staging. Treatment related toxicity was minimal and a high compliance with treatment was seen in this study. Further long-term follow-up with a larger group of patients is required.

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이 논문을 인용한 문헌 (2)

  1. Lee, Ji-Hae ; Lee, Kyung-Ja 2008. "Clinical Factors Predicting the Pathologic Tumor Response after Preoperative Concurrent Chemoradiotherapy for Rectal Cancer" 대한방사선종양학회지 = The Journal of the Korean soceity for therapeutic radiology and oncology, 26(4): 213~221 
  2. Song, Jin-Ho ; Jang, Hong-Seok ; Kim, Yeon-Sil ; Chung, Su-Mi ; Son, Seok-Hyun ; Kang, Jin-Hyeong ; Youk, Eui-Gon ; Lee, Doo-Seok ; Lee, Suk-Hi ; Yoon, Sei-Chul 2011. "The Pathological and Clinical Effects of Preoperative Chemoradiation in Rectal Cancer" 대한방사선종양학회지 = The Journal of the Korean soceity for therapeutic radiology and oncology, 29(1): 11~19 

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