Increasing numbers of Korean adults, especially women, are adopting vegetarian diets for various reasons. In this study, the characteristics of vegetarianism among females residing in Seoul were examined. In addition, the dietary habits and eating behaviors between vegetarians and non-vegetarians were investigated. A total of 148 females (73 vegetarians, 75 non-vegetarians) were recruited and questionnaires regarding their demographic characteristics and eating habits were completed. The eating behavior and daily intake of food groups was assessed using the three factor eating questionnaire-R18 (TFEQ-R18) and food frequency questionnaire, respectively. The ages, BMI, education, and religious affiliation were not significantly different between the two groups. More than 30% of vegetarians had followed a vegetarian diet for longer than 24 months. The most common motivations for vegetarianism in study participants were 'health or weight control' (46.6%) followed by 'environmental concerns or animal welfare' (24.7%). Vegetarians had a lower intake of cereals, Kimchi, and soda, but a higher intake of potatoes and sweet potatoes, vegetables, mushrooms, seaweed, and fruits compared to non-vegetarians. Significant differences in eating behavior scores were also found between the two groups; in particular, vegetarians reported higher levels of restrained eating and emotional eating than non-vegetarians. Scores of uncontrolled eating, however, were not significantly different between the two groups. In conclusion, these results suggest that while vegetarianism is associated with healthy dietary habits, it is associated with restrained eating behaviors which may increase the risk of eating disorders in women.
식품 제한의 수준에 따라, 오직 식물성 식품만 섭취하는 비건(vegan), 유제품을 섭취하는 락토 베지테리언(lacto vegetarian), 유제품과 함께 계란을 섭취하는 락토-오보 베지테리언(lacto-ovo vegetarian), 생선까지 섭취하는 페스코 베지테리언(pesco vegetarian), 붉은 고기류를 제외한 생선과 닭고기를 섭취하는 세미 베지테리언(semi vegetarian), 식물성 식품 위주의 식사를 하되 가끔 붉은 고기류 등의 육류 섭취를 허용하는 플랙시테리언(flexitarian) 등이 있다.
따라서 채식의 종류를 명확히 구분하기 어렵고, 연구자에 따라 정의가 조금씩 다르기는 하지만, 가장 일반적인 분류 방법은 다음과 같다. 즉, 식품 제한의 수준에 따라, 오직 식물성 식품만 섭취하는 비건(vegan), 유제품을 섭취하는 락토 베지테리언(lacto vegetarian), 유제품과 함께 계란을 섭취하는 락토-오보 베지테리언(lacto-ovo vegetarian), 생선까지 섭취하는 페스코 베지테리언(pesco vegetarian), 붉은 고기류를 제외한 생선과 닭고기를 섭취하는 세미 베지테리언(semi vegetarian), 식물성 식품 위주의 식사를 하되 가끔 붉은 고기류 등의 육류 섭취를 허용하는 플랙시테리언(flexitarian) 등이 있다. 또한 채식을 하게 되는 동기 역시 매우 다양하다.
채식은 흔히 육류를 섭취하지 않는 것으로 간단히 정의되기도 하지만, 실제 채식을 하고 있는 사람의 형태는 매우 다양하고, 연속적이다(Fox 등 2008). 즉, 붉은 고기류를 거의 먹지 않아도 닭고기나 생선은 섭취하는 경우가 있는가 하면, 모든 동물성 식품을 식이에서 제외시키고, 심지어 벌꿀이나 젤라틴 등과 같이 동물로부터 얻어진 식품까지도 제한하는 경우가 있다.
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서울지역 성인여성의 채식주의 실태 및 관련 식행동
韓國食生活文化學會誌 = Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture
, 2013년, pp.576 - 584
(경희대학교 생활과학대학 식품영양학과 )
( 경희대학교 생활과학대학 식품영양학과 )
( 경희대학교 생활과학대학 식품영양학과)