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프로바이오틱스의 면역조절을 통한 알레르기 예방 및 치료효과

The Preventive and Therapeutic Effects of Probiotics in Allergic Diseases Via Immune Modulation

초록

프로바이오틱스는 인체 내에서 정상 균총의 역할을 하며 건강에 도움을 주는 미생물을 의미하며, 식품이나 미생물총에서 유래한 비교적 안전한 균주이다. 프로바이오틱스로 많이 사용되는 젖산균은 소화를 돕고 장내환경을 보호해줄 뿐 아니라 면역조절기능 또한 가지고 있다. 대표적으로 $Th_1$ 반응을 유도하여 $Th_1/Th_2$ 균형을 이루게 하는 것을 중심으로, 알레르겐에 반응하는 IgE 및 침윤된 비만세포와 호산구를 감소시키고 면역 억제 기능이 있는 Treg을 유도함으로 알레르기 반응을 완화시킨다고 알려져 있다. 하지만 프로바이오틱스를 이용한 알레르기 질환에 대한 치료 및 예방 효과는 질병 별로 다르게 나타났다. 아토피 피부염에 대해서는 예방 및 치료 효과가 검증되고 있고 알레르기 비염과 음식물 알레르기에서는 예방 효과는 미미했지만 치료효과에서 긍정적이었다. 기관지 천식의 경우 프로바이오틱스의 예방 및 치료 효과를 거의 볼 수 없었지만, 최근에는 특정 균주가 기관지 천식 환자에서 임상 증상을 향상시킨다는 보고가 있다. 균주의 장내 생존율을 높이고 재조합 유산균을 만드는 백신 기술과 함께 프로바이오틱스는 미래의 안전한 알레르기 예방 및 치료제로서 기대할 수 있을 것이며 지속적인 시장의 확대를 통해 차세대 건강기능식품으로 떠오를 것이다.

Abstract

The demand to develop more safe and efficient methods for treating allergic patient is now continuously growing due to the increasing prevalence of allergic diseases. Probiotics are endogenous microbial flora that gives health benefits within hosts. Probiotics are now considered as one of solutions to treat allergic patients since recent evidence shows that some of probiotics have immunomodulatory function. Also, the treatment of probiotics to patients is relatively safer than other anti-inflammatory agents. In this review, we summarized on immunomodulatory function of some probiotics which show preventive or therapeutic effects on major allergic diseases such as atopic dermatitis, allergic rhinitis, asthma, or food allergy. Based on previous literature, the treatment of probiotics can alleviate the symptoms of allergic diseases via balancing $Th_1/Th_2$ response or increasing the number of regulatory T ($T_{reg}$) cells.

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