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논문 상세정보

세탁세제 첨가용 효소 개발을 위한 남극 해양세균 유래 저온성 단백질분해효소의 특성 연구

Characterization of an Antarctic alkaline protease, a cold-active enzyme for laundry detergents

초록

남극 해양세균 Pseudoalteromonas arctica PAMC 21717로부터 저온활성 alkaline protease (Pro21717)를 부분정제하였다. Pro21717 효소 추출액은 skim milk를 포함하는 zymogram gel 상에서 약 37 kDa (낮은 활성)과 74 kDa (높은 활성) 위치에서 두 개의 뚜렷한 투명밴드(clear zone)를 형성하였다. 단백질 분해활성을 나타내는 두 개의 효소단백질은 동일한 N-말단 아미노산 서열을 가지고 있었으며, 하나의 유전자에서 발현된 미성숙 단백질(precursor)이 37 kDa 크기의 단백질분해효소로 성숙화과정을 거친 후 74 kDa 크기로 이량체화됨으로써 좀 더 높은 활성을 가지는 것으로 판단된다. Pro21717은 $0-40^{\circ}C$ (최고활성 온도 $40^{\circ}C$) 온도 범위에서 단백질분해활성을 나타내었고 pH 5.0-10.0 (최적 pH 9.0) 범위에서 효소활성을 유지하였다. 주목할만한 특성으로써, Pro21717은 $40^{\circ}C$에서의 최고 효소활성(100%) 대비, $0^{\circ}C$$10^{\circ}C$에서 각각 30%와 45%의 높은 저온활성을 나타내었다. 또한 다양한 합성 펩타이드류에 대해 분해활성을 나타내는 Pro21717은 $Cu^{2+}$에 의해 활성이 증가하였으며, 시판용 세탁세제(commercial detergent formulation)에 포함되어 있는 다양한 종류의 계면활성제, 화학성분, 금속이온에 의해 활성이 감소되지 않았다. 전반적으로 저온활성 Pro21717은 글로벌 상업용효소 생산회사 Novozymes이 시판하고 있는 중온성 효소 Subtilisin Carlsberg (trademark Alcalase)에 버금가는 유용한 효소학적 특성이 있는 동시에 상대적으로 더 높은 저온활성을 보여주고 있다. 위의 실험결과들은, Pro21717은 $15^{\circ}C$ 이하의 차가운 수돗물에서도 세척력을 유지하는 새로운 세탁세제 효소첨가제로서의 개발 가능성을 보여주고 있다.

Abstract

A cold-active and alkaline serine protease (Pro21717) was partially purified from the Antarctic marine bacterium Pseudoalteromonas arctica PAMC 21717. On a zymogram gel containing skim milk, Pro21717 produced two distinct clear-zones of approximately 37 kDa (low intensity) and 74 kDa (high intensity). These were found to have identical N-terminal sequences, suggesting they arose from an identical precursor and that the 37 kDa protease might homodimerize to the more active 74 kDa form of the protein. Pro21717 displayed proteolytic activity at $0-40^{\circ}C$ (optimal temperature of $40^{\circ}C$) and maintained this activity at pH 5.0-10.0 (optimal pH of 9.0). Notably, relative activities of 30% and 45% were observed at $0^{\circ}C$ and $10^{\circ}C$, respectively, in comparison to the 100% activity observed at $40^{\circ}C$, and this enzyme showed a broad substrate range against synthetic peptides with a preference for proline in the cleavage reaction. Pro21717 activity was enhanced by $Cu^{2+}$ and remained stable in the presence of detergent surfactants (linear alkylbenzene sulfonate and sodium dodecyl sulfate) and other chemical components ($Na_2SO_4$ and metal ions, such as $Ba^{2+}$, $Mg^{2+}$, $Ca^{2+}$, $Zn^{2+}$, $Fe^{2+}$, $K^+$, and $Na^{2+}$), which are often included in commercial detergent formulations. These data indicate that the psychrophilic Pro21717 has properties comparable to the well-characterized mesophilic subtilisin Carlsberg, which is commercially produced by Novozymes as the trademark Alcalase. Thus it has the potential to be used as a new additive enzyme in laundry detergents that must work well in cold tap water below $15^{\circ}C$.

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