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Abstract

Anger is a multi-dimensional concept ranging from feeling irritable to violent aggression. A growing body of literature suggests the relevance of sleep in regard to anger. The current study aims to review previous studies on the association between anger and diverse aspects of sleep including sleep disruption, chronotype, sleep disorders and sleep deprivation. An association between sleep and anger has been observed starting in the early stage of life, with sleep of infants or toddlers affecting emotional and behavioral aspects of anger. However, the association between anger and sleep is not clear in adolescents and might be due to the effects of psychosocial factors on both sleep and anger during adolescence. Subjective but not objective sleep disturbances of adults have been also associated with anger. Evening types showed more anger, which might be mediated by psychological characteristics or social jet lag of evening people. Increased anger has also been found in those with insomnia, sleep apnea, or experimental sleep-deprivation. Previous studies have reported that diverse sleep disturbances are related to anger. Future study assessing the various sleep or circadian indices and considering the multidimensional aspects of anger are needed.

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핵심어 질문 논문에서 추출한 답변
분노
대표적인 분노 관련 하위 증상에는 무엇이 있는가?
과민성(irritability), 공격성(aggression), 적대감(hostility) 등

다양한 정서와 행동을 포괄하는 분노의 특성으로 인해, 분노에 대한 조작적 정의는 연구마다 다소 차이가 있으며, 분노를 구성하는 하위 증상을 함께 다루는 연구가 많다. 대표적인 분노 관련 하위 증상으로는 과민성(irritability), 공격성(aggression), 적대감(hostility) 등이 있다(Anderson과 Bushman 2002). 과민성은 ‘쉽게 짜증내고 분노가 유발되는 상태’로 정의하며(American Psychiatric Association 2013), 종종 ‘화난 기분(angry mood)’과 같은 뜻으로 사용한다(Safer 등 2009).

분노
분노란 무엇인가?
경미한 짜증이나 과민함부터 격분이나 격노까지 다양한 정도의 주관적 감정을 일컫는 정서적 상태

분노(anger)는 ‘경미한 짜증이나 과민함부터 격분이나 격노까지 다양한 정도의 주관적 감정을 일컫는 정서적 상태’ 라고 정의할 수 있다(Spielberger 2010). 그러나 분노는 주관적 정서 경험뿐 아니라 신체적 각성이나 행동으로도 나타난다(Potegal 등 2010).

분노 증상
분노 증상의 측정 중 상태-특성 분노표현척도에 사용되는 소 척도에는 무엇이 있는가?
‘분노 특성’과 ‘분노 표현’

분노 증상은 주로 자기보고설문으로 측정한다. 상태-특성 분노표현척도(State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory-2, STAXI-2)는 분노를 ‘분노 특성’과 ‘분노 표현’ 두 소척 도로 측정한다(Spielberger 1999). ‘분노 특성’ 소척도는 분노 기질(angry temperament)과 분노 반응, ‘분노 표현’ 소척도는 분노 내면화(anger-in), 분노 외현화(anger-out), 분노 통제(anger-control) 세 영역으로 나뉘어 분노의 다양한 특성을 다룬다.

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