$\require{mediawiki-texvc}$
  • 검색어에 아래의 연산자를 사용하시면 더 정확한 검색결과를 얻을 수 있습니다.
  • 검색연산자
검색연산자 기능 검색시 예
() 우선순위가 가장 높은 연산자 예1) (나노 (기계 | machine))
공백 두 개의 검색어(식)을 모두 포함하고 있는 문서 검색 예1) (나노 기계)
예2) 나노 장영실
| 두 개의 검색어(식) 중 하나 이상 포함하고 있는 문서 검색 예1) (줄기세포 | 면역)
예2) 줄기세포 | 장영실
! NOT 이후에 있는 검색어가 포함된 문서는 제외 예1) (황금 !백금)
예2) !image
* 검색어의 *란에 0개 이상의 임의의 문자가 포함된 문서 검색 예) semi*
"" 따옴표 내의 구문과 완전히 일치하는 문서만 검색 예) "Transform and Quantization"

논문 상세정보

초록

오늘날 해양 생태계를 위협하는 물질의 하나로 주목받고 있는 미세플라스틱에 대하여 해양생물에 대한 유해성 등의 연구 현황을 종합하고 향후 연구 방향에 대하여 제안하고자 한다. 미세플라스틱은 5 mm 이하의 합성 고분자화합물로, 환경으로 배출된 이들 물질은 물리적으로 크기가 작을 뿐만 아니라 시간이 지남에 분해되지 않아 육지와 해양의 연안부터 원양까지, 표층과 심해에도 광범위하게 축적된다. 미세플라스틱은 해양 생물에게 섭식 및 축적될 수 있으며, 플라스틱에 첨가된 화학물질의 용출로 인한 위험성도 존재한다. 해양에 축적된 미세플라스틱은 해양 생물의 성장과 발달, 행동, 번식 및 사망 등에 영향을 끼친다. 다만 미세플라스틱의 특성은 크기, 재질, 모양 등 매우 다양하며, 몇가지 특성의 미세플라스틱으로 수행된 독성 시험이 다른 모든 미세플라스틱의 위해성을 대표할 수 없다. 때문에 미세플라스틱의 유형에 따른 위해성의 경향을 확인할 필요가 있으나, 미세플라스틱의 다양성으로 인해 여러 연구 결과에 통일성이 없어 비교 및 분석이 어렵다. 따라서 미세플라스틱의 유형에 따른 생물학적 위험을 추정하기 위해 표준시험법의 도출이 필요하다. 또한, 기존 연구의 대부분은 실험의 편의에 의해 대부분 구형을 대상으로 이루어지고있으나, 해양환경과 어패류에서 발견되는 미세플라스틱의 형태는 섬유 및 파편이 주류인 현실을 제대로 반영하고 있지 못하다. 더불어 플라스틱에 들어있는 첨가제 및 흡착 유해물질에 대한 연구는 있으나, 미세플라스틱의 형태로 생물의 체내로 들어갔을 때의 독성영향에 대하여 알려진 바는 거의 없다. 표준시험법의 개발, 구형보다 섬유와 파편 형태의 미세플라스틱에 대하여, 그리고 첨가제와 흡착 유해물질에 대한 연구가 진행된다면 해양 생태계 및 인간에 대한 미세플라스틱의 영향을 보다 상세히 파악할 수 있을 것이다.

Abstract

Microplastics are one of the substances threatening the marine ecosystem. Here, we summarize the status of research on the effect of microplastics on marine life and suggest future research directions. Microplastics are synthetic polymeric compounds smaller than 5 mm and these materials released into the environment are not only physically small but do not decompose over time. Thus, they accumulate extensively on land, from the coast to the sea, and from the surface to the deep sea. Microplastic can be ingested and accumulated in marine life. Furthermore, the elution of chemicals added to plastic represents another risk. Microplastics accumulated in the ocean affect the growth, development, behavior, reproduction, and death of marine life. However, the properties of microplastics vary widely in size, material, shape, and other aspects and toxicity tests conducted on several properties of microplastics cannot represent the hazards of all other microplastics. It is necessary to evaluate the risks according to the types of microplastic, but due to their variety and the lack of uniformity in research results, it is difficult to compare and analyze the results of previous studies. Therefore, it is necessary to derive a standard test method to estimate the biological risk from different types of microplastics. In addition, while most of the previous studies were conducted mostly on spheres for the convenience of the experiments, they do not properly reflect the reality that fibers and fragments are the main forms of microplastics in the marine environment and in fish and shellfish. Furthermore, studies have been conducted on additives and POPs (persistent organic pollutants) in plastics, but little is known about their toxic effects on the body. The effects of microplastics on the marine ecosystems and humans could be identified in more detail if standard testing methods are developed, microplastics in the form of fibers and fragments rather than spheres are tested, and additives and POPs are analyzed. These investigations will allow us to identify the impact of microplastics on marine ecosystems and humans in more detail.

질의응답 

키워드에 따른 질의응답 제공
핵심어 질문 논문에서 추출한 답변
플라스틱
플라스틱의 특징은 무엇인가?
생산 비용이 낮고 가소성이 높아 산업적 활용도가 무한에 가까우며, 자연적으로 분해가 잘 되지 않는다는 점

플라스틱은 생산 비용이 낮고 가소성이 높아 산업적 활용도가 무한에 가까우며, 자연적으로 분해가 잘 되지 않는다는 점이 가장 큰 특징이다. 시간이 지날수록 물리적인 마모나 풍화, UV, 온도 변화 등에 의해 눈에 보이지 않는 작은 조각으로 분해된다(Andrady 2011).

플라스틱 입자
5mm이하의 작은 플라스틱 입자는 생성 과정에 따라 어떻게 분류되는가?
1차 미세플라스틱(primary microplastics) 과 2차 미세플라스틱(secondary microplastics)으로 분류한다

2004), 기존의 플라스틱 쓰레기와 더불어 해양 환경과 생태계를 위협하고 있는 물질이다. 생성 과정에 따라 1차 미세플라스틱(primary microplastics) 과 2차 미세플라스틱(secondary microplastics)으로 분류한다. 1차 미세플라스틱은 치약, 세안제, 스크럽뿐만 아니라 공업용 연마제 등의 상품을 위해 처음부터 만들어진 것으로(Friot and Boucher 2017), 작은 크기로 인해 환경으로 유입될 가능성이 있지만 하수처리장의 입자성 물질 여과로 대부분이 제거된다(Carr et al.

미세플라스틱
미세플라스틱의 특징은 무엇인가?
크기가 작아 수중의 금속, 폴리염화비페닐, 기타 유독 물질과 화학적 친화도가 높다

미세플라스틱은 크기가 작아 수중의 금속, 폴리염화비페닐, 기타 유독 물질과 화학적 친화도가 높다(Talsness et al. 2009).

질의응답 정보가 도움이 되었나요?

저자의 다른 논문

참고문헌 (99)

  1. 1. Akpan N. 2014. Earth & Environment: Microplastics lodge in crab gills, guts: Creatures absorb particles through food and via respiration. Sci. News 186:9. 
  2. 2. Andrady AL. 2011. Microplastics in the marine environment. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 62:1596-1605. 
  3. 3. Arthur C, J Baker and H Bamford. 2009. Proceedings of the International Research Workshop on the Occurrence, Effects, and Fate of Microplastic Marine Debris. NOAA Tech. Rep. NMFS. 
  4. 4. Avio CG, S Gorbi, M Milan, M Benedetti, D Fattorini, G d'Errico, M Pauletto, L Bargelloni and F Regoli. 2015. Pollutants bioavailability and toxicological risk from microplastics to marine mussels. Environ. Pollut. 198:211-222. 
  5. 5. Barnes DKA, F Galgani, RC Thompson and M Barlaz. 2009. Accumulation and fragmentation of plastic debris in global environments. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B 364:1985-1998. 
  6. 6. Besseling E, A Wegner, EM Foekema, MJ van den Heuvel-Greve and AA Koelmans. 2013. Effects of microplastic on fitness and PCB bioaccumulation by the Lugworm Arenicola marina (L.). Environ. Sci. Technol. 47:593-600. 
  7. 7. Betts K. 2008. Why small plastic particles may pose a big problem in the oceans. Environ. Sci. Technol. 42:8995. 
  8. 8. Boucher J and D Friot. 2017. Primary microplastics in the oceans: a global evaluation of sources. IUCN. Gland, Switzerland. 
  9. 9. Bouwmeester H, PC Hollman and RJ Peters. 2015. Potential health impact of environmentally released micro- and nanoplastics in the human food production chain: experiences from nanotoxicology. Environ. Sci. Technol. 49:8932-8947. 
  10. 10. Brennecke D, B Duarte, F Paiva, I Cacador and J Canning-Clode. 2016. Microplastics as vector for heavy metal contamination from the marine environment. Estuar. Coast. Shelf. Sci. 178:189-195. 
  11. 11. Browne MA, A Dissanayake, TS Galloway, DM Lowe and RC Thompson. 2008. Ingested microscopic plastic translocates to the circulatory system of the mussel, Mytilus edulis (L). Environ. Sci. Technol. 42:5026-5031. 
  12. 12. Browne MA. 2015. Sources and pathways of microplastics to habitats. pp. 229-244. In Marine Anthropogenic Litter. Springer, Cham. 
  13. 13. Carlos de Sa L, LG Luis and L Guilhermino. 2015. Effects of microplastics on juveniles of the common goby (Pomatoschistus microps): confusion with prey, reduction of the predatory performance and efficiency, and possible influence of developmental conditions. Environ. Pollut. 196:359-362. 
  14. 14. Carr SA, J Liu and AG Tesoro. 2016. Transport and fate of microplastic particles in wastewater treatment plants. Water Res. 91:174-182. 
  15. 15. Chae Y and YJ An. 2017. Effects of micro- and nanoplastics on aquatic ecosystems: Current research trends and perspectives. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 124:624-632. 
  16. 16. Cho Y, WJ Shim, M Jang, GM Han and SH Hong. 2019. Abundance and characteristics of microplastics in market bivalves from South Korea. Environ. Pollut. 245:1107-1116. 
  17. 17. Choi JS, YJ Jung, NH Hong, SH Hong and JW Park. 2018. Toxicological effects of irregularly shaped and spherical microplastics in a marine teleost, the sheepshead minnow (Cyprinodon variegatus). Mar. Pollut. Bull. 129:231-240. 
  18. 18. Claessens M, L van Cauwenbe, MB Vandegehuchte and CR Janssen. 2013. New techniques for the detection of microplastics in sediments and field collected organisms. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 70:227-233. 
  19. 19. Cole M and TS Galloway. 2015. Ingestion of nanoplastics and microplastics by Pacific oyster larvae. Environ. Sci. Technol. 49:14625-14632. 
  20. 20. Cole M, P Lindeque, E Fileman, C Halsband, R Goodhead, J Moger and TS Galloway. 2013. Microplastic ingestion by zooplankton. Environ. Sci. Technol. 47:6646-6655. 
  21. 21. Cole M, P Lindeque, C Halsband and TS Galloway. 2011. Microplastics as contaminants in the marine environment: A review. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 62:2588-2597. 
  22. 22. Cole M, H Webb, PK Lindeque, ES Fileman, C Halsband and TS Galloway. 2014. Isolation of microplastics in biota-rich seawater samples and marine organisms. Sci. Rep. 4:4528. 
  23. 23. Cozar A, F Echevarria, JI Gonzalez-Gordillo, X Irigoien, B Ubeda, S Hernandez-Leon, AT Palma, S Navarro, J Garcia-de-Lomas, A Ruiz, ML Fernandez-de-Puelles and CM Duarte. 2014. Plastic debris in the open ocean. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 111:10239-10244. 
  24. 24. Crawford CB and B Quinn. 2017. Microplastic Pollutants, 1st Edition. Elsevier Science. 
  25. 25. Da Costa JP, PSM Santos, AC Duarte and T Rocha-Santos. 2016. (Nano)plastics in the environment - Sources, fates and effects. Sci. Total Environ. 566:15-26. 
  26. 26. Della Torre C, E Bergami, A Salvati, C Faleri, P Cirino, KA Dawson and I Corsi. 2014. Accumulation and embryotoxicity of polystyrene nanoparticles at early stage of development of sea urchin embryos Paracentrotus lividus. Environ. Sci. Technol. 48:12302-12311. 
  27. 27. Derraik JGB. 2002. The pollution of the marine environment by plastic debris: a review. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 44:842-852. 
  28. 28. Desforges JPW, M Galbraith, N Dangerfield and PS Ross. 2014. Widespread distribution of microplastics in subsurface seawater in the NE Pacific Ocean. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 79:94-99. 
  29. 29. Didier D, M Anne and TH Alexandra. 2017. Plastics in the North Atlantic garbage patch: A boat-microbe for hitchhikers and plastic degraders. Sci. Total Environ. 599:1222-1232. 
  30. 30. Enders K, R Lenz, CA Stedmon and TG Nielsen. 2015. Abundance, size and polymer composition of marine microplastics ${\geq}10\;{\mu}m$ in the Atlantic Ocean and their modelled vertical distribution. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 100:70-81. 
  31. 31. Farrell P and K Nelson. 2013. Trophic level transfer of microplastic: Mytilus edulis (L.) to Carcinus maenas (L.). Environ. Pollut. 177:1-3. 
  32. 32. Ferreira P, E Fonte, ME Soares, F Carvalho and L Guilhermino. 2016. Effects of multi-stressors on juveniles of the marine fish Pomatoschistus microps: Gold nanoparticles, microplastics and temperature. Aquat. Toxicol. 170:89-103. 
  33. 33. Fonte E, P Ferreira and L Guilhermino. 2016. Temperature rise and microplastics interact with the toxicity of the antibiotic cefalexin to juveniles of the common goby (Pomatoschistus microps): Post-exposure predatory behaviour, acetylcholinesterase activity and lipid peroxidation. Aquat. Toxicol. 180:173-185. 
  34. 34. Gambardella C, S Morgana, S Ferrando, M Bramini, V Piazza, E Costa, F Garaventa and M Faimali. 2017. Effects of polystyrene microbeads in marine planktonic crustaceans. Ecotox. Environ. Safe. 145:250-257. 
  35. 35. Gandara E Silva PP, CR Nobre, P Resaffe, CDS Pereira and F Gusmao. 2016. Leachate from microplastics impairs larval development in brown mussels. Water Res. 106:364-370. 
  36. 36. Geyer R, JR Jambeck and KL Law. 2017. Production, use, and fate of all plastics ever made. Sci. Adv. 3:e1700782. 
  37. 37. Gray AD and JE Weinstein. 2017. Size- and shape-dependent effects of microplastic particles on adult daggerblade grass shrimp (Palaemonetes pugio). Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 36:3074-3080. 
  38. 38. Green DS, B Boots, J Sigwart, S Jiang and C Rocha. 2016. Effects of conventional and biodegradable microplastics on a marine ecosystem engineer (Arenicola marina) and sediment nutrient cycling. Environ. Pollut. 208:426-434. 
  39. 39. Green DS. 2016. Effects of microplastics on European flat oysters, Ostrea edulis and their associated benthic communities. Environ. Pollut. 216:95-103. 
  40. 40. Guven O, L Bach, P Munk, KV Dinh, P Mariani and TG Nielsen. 2018. Microplastic does not magnify the acute effect of PAH pyrene on predatory performance of a tropical fish (Lates calcarifer). Aquat. Toxicol. 198:287-293. 
  41. 41. Hahladakis JH, CA Velis, R Weber, E Iacovidou and P Purnell. 2018. An overview of chemical additives present in plastics: Migration, release, fate and environmental impact during their use, disposal and recycling. J. Hazard. Mater. 344:179-199. 
  42. 42. Hansen E, N Nillson, D Lithner and D Lassen. 2013. Hazardous Substances in Plastic Materials. COWI in cooperation with Danish Technological Institute. 
  43. 43. Heindler FM, F Alajmi, R Huerlimann, C Zeng, SJ Newman, G Vamvounis and L van Herwerden. 2017. Toxic effects of polyethylene terephthalate microparticles and Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate on the calanoid copepod, Parvocalanus crassirostris. Ecotox. Environ. Safe. 141:298-305. 
  44. 44. Jeong CB, EJ Won, HM Kang, MC Lee, DS Hwang, UK Hwang, B Zhou, S Souissi, SJ Lee and JS Lee. 2016. Microplastic size-dependent toxicity, oxidative stress induction, and p-JNK and p-p38 activation in the monogonont rotifer (Brachionus koreanus). Environ. Sci. Technol. 50:8849-8857. 
  45. 45. Kang HS, MH Seo, YS Yang, EO Park, YH Yoon, DJ Kim, HG Jeong and HY Soh. 2018. Zooplankton and neustonic microplastics in the surface layer of Yeosu coastal areas. Korean J. Environ. Biol. 36:11-20. 
  46. 46. Kaposi KL, B Mos, BP Kelaher and SA Dworjanyn. 2014. Ingestion of microplastic has limited impact on a marine larva. Environ. Sci. Technol. 48:1638-1645. 
  47. 47. Kaufman AC. 2016. Obama's Ban On Plastic Microbeads Failed In One Huge Way. The Huffington Post. 
  48. 48. Koelmans AA, A Bakir, GA Burton and CR Janssen. 2016. Microplastic as a vector for chemicals in the aquatic environment: critical review and model-supported reinterpretation of empirical studies. Environ. Sci. Technol. 50:3315-3326. 
  49. 49. Koelmans AA, E Besseling and WJ Shim. 2015. Nanoplastics in the aquatic environment: critical review. pp. 325-340. In Marine Anthropogenic Litter. Springer International Publishing. 
  50. 50. Kolandhasamy P, L Su, J Li, X Qu, K Jabeen and H Shi. 2018. Adherence of microplastics to soft tissue of mussels: A novel way to uptake microplastics beyond ingestion. Sci. Total Environ. 610:635-640. 
  51. 51. Law K and RC Thompson. 2014. Microplastics in the seas - Concern is rising about widespread contamination of the marine environment by microplastics. Science 345:144-145. 
  52. 52. Lee KW, WJ Shim, OY Kwon and JH Kang. 2013. Size-dependent effects of micro polystyrene particles in the marine copepod Tigriopus japonicus. Environ. Sci. Technol. 47:11278-11283. 
  53. 53. Leung J and KYK Chan. 2018. Microplastics reduced posterior segment regeneration rate of the polychaete Perinereis aibuhitensis. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 129:782-786. 
  54. 54. Li J, C Green, A Reynolds, H Shi and JM Rotchell. 2018. Microplastics in mussels sampled from coastal waters and supermarkets in the United Kingdom. Environ. Pollut. 241:35-44. 
  55. 55. Lo HKA and KYK Chan. 2018. Negative effects of microplastic exposure on growth and development of Crepidula onyx. Environ. Pollut. 233:588-595. 
  56. 56. Luis LG, P Ferreira, E Fonte, M Oliveira and L Guilhermino. 2015. Does the presence of microplastics influence the acute toxicity of chromium (VI) to early juveniles of the common goby (Pomatoschistus microps)? A study with juveniles from two wild estuarine populations. Aquat. Toxicol. 164:163-174. 
  57. 57. Lusher AL, M McHugh and RC Thompson. 2013. Occurrence of microplastics in the gastrointestinal tract of pelagic and demersal fish from the English Channel. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 67:94-99. 
  58. 58. Lusher AL, V Tirelli, I O'Connor and R Officer. 2015. Microplastics in Arctic polar waters: The first reported values of particles in surface and sub-surface samples. Sci. Rep. 5:14947. 
  59. 59. Lusher AL, NA Welden, P Sobralc and M Cole. 2017. Sampling, isolating and identifying microplastics ingested by fish and invertebrates. Anal. Methods 9:1346-1360. 
  60. 60. Ma Y, A Huang, S Cao, F Sun, L Wang, H Guo and R Ji. 2016. Effects of nanoplastics and microplastics on toxicity, bioaccumulation, and environmental fate of phenanthrene in fresh water. Environ. Pollut. 219:166-173. 
  61. 61. Mato Y, T Isobe, H Takada, H Kanehiro, C Ohtake and T Kaminuma. 2001. Plastic resin pellets as a transport medium for toxic chemicals in the marine environment. Environ. Sci. Technol. 35:318-324. 
  62. 62. Martinez-Gomez C, VM Leon, S Calles, M Gomariz-Olcina and AD Vethaak. 2017. The adverse effects of virgin microplastics on the fertilization and larval development of sea urchins. Mar. Environ. Res. 130:69-76. 
  63. 63. Mazurais D, B Ernande, P Quazuguel, A Severe, C Huelvan, L Madec, O Mouchel, P Soudant, J Robbens, A Huvet and J Zambonino-Infante. 2015. Evaluation of the impact of polyethylene microbeads ingestion in European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) larvae. Mar. Environ. Res. 112:78-85. 
  64. 64. Messinetti S, S Mercurio, M Parolini, M Sugni and R Pennati. 2018. Effects of polystyrene microplastics on early stages of two marine invertebrates with different feeding strategies. Environ. Pollut. 237:1080-1087. 
  65. 65. Murphy F, C Ewins, F Carbonnier and B Quinn. 2016. Wastewater Treatment Works (WwTW) as a source of microplastics in the aquatic environment. Environ. Sci. Technol. 50:5800-5808. 
  66. 66. OECD. 2018. Improving Markets for Recycled Plastics: Trends, Prospects and Policy Responses. OECD Publishing. 
  67. 67. Oehlmann J, U Schulte-Oehlmann, W Kloas, O Jagnytsch, I Lutz, KO Kusk, L Wollenberger, EM Santos, GC Paull, KJ van Look and CR Tyler. 2009. A critical analysis of the biological impacts of plasticizers on wildlife. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. B 364:2047-2062. 
  68. 68. Paul-Pont I, C Lacroix, C Gonzalez Fernandez, H Hegaret, C Lambert, N Le Goic, L Frere, AL Cassone, R Sussarellu, C Fabioux, J Guyomarch, M Albentosa, A Huvet and P Soudant. 2016. Exposure of marine mussels Mytilus spp. to polystyrene microplastics: Toxicity and influence on fluoranthene bioaccumulation. Environ. Pollut. 216:724-737. 
  69. 69. Peda C, L Caccamo, MC Fossi, F Gai, F Andaloro, L Genovese, A Perdichizzi, T Romeo and G Maricchiolo. 2016. Intestinal alterations in European sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax (Linnaeus, 1758) exposed to microplastics: Preliminary results. Environ. Pollut. 212:251-256. 
  70. 70. Plastics Europe. 2017. Plastics - The Facts 2017. Plastics Europe, Brussels. 
  71. 71. Qiao R, Y Deng, S Zhang, MB Wolosker, Q Zhu, H Ren and Y Zhang. 2019. Accumulation of different shapes of microplastics initiates intestinal injury and gut microbiota dysbiosis in the gut of zebrafish. Chemosphere 236:124334. 
  72. 72. Ribeiro F, AR Garcia, BP Pereira, M Fonseca, NC Mestre, TG Fonseca, LM Ilharco and MJ Bebianno. 2017. Microplastics effects in Scrobicularia plana. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 122:379-391. 
  73. 73. Rist SE, K Assidqi, NP Zamani, D Appel, M Perschke, M Huhn and M Lenz. 2016. Suspended micro-sized PVC particles impair the performance and decrease survival in the Asian green mussel Perna viridis. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 111:213-220. 
  74. 74. Rochman CM, E Hoh, T Kurobe and SJ Teh. 2013. Ingested plastic transfers hazardous chemicals to fish and induces hepatic stress. Sci. Rep. 3:3263. 
  75. 75. Rochman CM, JM Parnis, MA Browne, S Serrato, EJ Reiner, M Robson, T Young, ML Diamond and SJ Teh. 2017. Direct and indirect effects of different types of microplastics on freshwater prey (Corbicula fluminea) and their predator (Acipenser transmontanus). PLoS One 12:e0187664. 
  76. 76. Rochman CM, A Tahir, SL Williams, DV Baxa, R Lam, JT Miller, FC Teh, S Werorilangi and SJ Teh. 2015. Anthropogenic debris in seafood: Plastic debris and fibers from textiles in fish and bivalves sold for human consumption. Sci. Rep. 5:14340. 
  77. 77. Setala O, V Fleming-Lehtinen and M Lehtiniemi. 2014. Ingestion and transfer of microplastics in the planktonic food web. Environ. Pollut. 185:77-83. 
  78. 78. Sherrington C, C Darrah, S Hann, M Cordle and G Cole. 2016. Study to support the development of measures to combat a range of marine litter sources. Report for European Commission DG Environment. 
  79. 79. Sjollema SB, P Redondo-Hasselerharm, HA Leslie, MHS Kraak and AD Vethaak. 2016. Do plastic particles affect microalgal photosynthesis and growth? Aquat. Toxicol. 170:259-261. 
  80. 80. Sun X, Q Li, M Zhu, J Liang, S Zheng and Y Zhao. 2017. Ingestion of microplastics by natural zooplankton groups in the northern South China Sea. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 115:217-224. 
  81. 81. Sussarellu R, M Suquet, Y Thomas, C Lambert, C Fabioux, ME Pernet, N Le Goic, V Quillien, C Mingant, Y Epelboin, C Corporeau, J Guyomarch, J Robbens, I Paul-Pont, P Soudant and A Huvet. 2016. Oyster reproduction is affected by exposure to polystyrene microplastics. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 113:2430-2435. 
  82. 82. Talsness CE, AJ Andrade, SN Kuriyama, JA Taylor and FS vom Saal. 2009. Components of plastic: Experimental studies in animals and relevance for human health. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. B 364:2079-2096. 
  83. 83. Talvitie J, A Mikola, A Koistinen and O Setala. 2017. Solutions to microplastic pollution - Removal of microplastics from wastewater effluent with advanced wastewater treatment technologies. Water Res. 123:401-407. 
  84. 84. Ter Halle A, L Ladirat, X Gendre, D Goudouneche, C Pusineri, C Routaboul, C Tenailleau, B Duployer and E Perez. 2016. Understanding the fragmentation pattern of marine plastic debris. Environ. Sci. Technol. 50:5668-5675. 
  85. 85. Thompson RC, Y Olsen, RP Mitchell, A Davis, SJ Rowland, AW John, D McGonigle and AE Russell. 2004. Lost at sea: where is all the plastic? Science 304:838. 
  86. 86. Van Cauwenberghe L, M Claessens, MB Vandegehuchte and CR Janssen. 2015. Microplastics are taken up by mussels (Mytilus edulis) and lugworms (Arenicola marina) living in natural habitats. Environ. Pollut. 199:10-17. 
  87. 87. Von Moos N, P Burkhardt-Holm and A Koehler. 2012. Uptake and effects of microplastics on cells and tissue of the blue mussel Mytilus edulis L. after an experimental exposure. Environ. Sci. Technol. 46:11327-11335. 
  88. 88. Vroom RJE, AA Koelmans, E Besseling and C Halsband. 2017. Aging of microplastics promotes their ingestion by marine zooplankton. Environ Pollut. 231:987-996. 
  89. 89. Waite HR, MJ Donnelly and LJ Walters. 2018. Quantity and types of microplastics in the organic tissues of the eastern oyster Crassostrea virginica and Atlantic mud crab Panopeus herbstii from a Florida estuary. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 129:179-185. 
  90. 90. Wang M, X Wang, X Luo and H Zheng. 2017. Short-term toxicity of polystryrene microplastics on mysid shrimps Neomysis japonica. p. 012136. In IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environment Science. IOP Publishing. 
  91. 91. Wang S, W Lu, O Tovmachenko, US Rai, H Yu and PC Ray. 2008. Challenge in understanding size and shape dependent toxicity of gold nanomaterials in human skin keratinocytes. Chem. Phys. Lett. 463:145-149. 
  92. 92. Ward JE and DJ Kach. 2009. Marine aggregates facilitate ingestion of nanoparticles by suspension-feeding bivalves. Mar. Environ. Res. 68:137-142. 
  93. 93. Ward JE and NM Targett. 1989. Influence of marine microalgal metabolites on the feeding behavior of the blue mussel Mytilus edulis. Mar. Biol. 101:313-321. 
  94. 94. Ward JE, JS Levinton and SE Shumway. 2003. Influence of diet on pre-ingestive particle processing in bivalves I: Transport velocities on the ctenidium. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 293:129-149. 
  95. 95. Watts AJ, MA Urbina, R Goodhead, J Moger, C Lewis and TS Galloway. 2016. Effect of microplastic on the gills of the shore crab Carcinus maenas. Environ. Sci. Technol. 50:5364-5369. 
  96. 96. Wright SL, RC Thompson and TS Galloway. 2013. The physical impacts of microplastics on marine organisms: A review. Environ. Pollut. 178:483-492. 
  97. 97. Wu WM, J Yang and CS Criddle. 2017. Microplastics pollution and reduction strategies. Front. Env. Sci. Eng. 11:6. 
  98. 98. Yu X, J Peng, J Wang, K Wang and S Bao. 2016. Occurrence of microplastics in the beach sand of the Chinese inner sea: the Bohai Sea. Environ. Pollut. 214:722-730. 
  99. 99. Zhang C, X Chen, J Wang and L Tan. 2017. Toxic effects of microplastic on marine microalgae Skeletonema costatum: Interactions between microplastic and algae. Environ. Pollut. 220:1282-1288. 

문의하기 

궁금한 사항이나 기타 의견이 있으시면 남겨주세요.

Q&A 등록

원문보기

원문 PDF 다운로드

  • ScienceON :
  • KCI :

원문 URL 링크

원문 PDF 파일 및 링크정보가 존재하지 않을 경우 KISTI DDS 시스템에서 제공하는 원문복사서비스를 사용할 수 있습니다. (원문복사서비스 안내 바로 가기)

이 논문과 연관된 기능

DOI 인용 스타일

"" 핵심어 질의응답