Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of depression and self-efficacy on health promotion behavior in elders living alone in rural area. Methods: This was a descriptive study. The survey participants were 369 elders living alone in rural area. The period of time for data collection was from June 23 to August 7, 2008. Data were analyzed by descriptive statistics, independent-samples t-test, ANOVA, pearson's correlation coefficient, and stepwise multiple regression. Results: Depression was found to have a statistically negative correlation with health promotion behavior. Self-efficacy was found to have a statistically positive correlation with health promotion behavior. Stepwise multiple regression analysis revealed that the most powerful predictor of health promotion behavior was depression. Depression, self-efficacy, number of chronic disease, and economic status accounted for 35.2% of the variance. Conclusion: It is necessary to prepare health promotion programs that can reduce depression level and improve self-efficacy in elders living alone in rural area.
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