Probiotics have been extensively studied for their beneficial effects on human health. In particular, Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium strains have gained considerable attention as major groups of probiotic bacteria that improve gastrointestinal health. However, emerging evidence suggests that probiotics offer benefits beyond those observed in the gut recent studies suggest that probiotics and/or their components exert favorable effects on alcoholic liver disease (ALD) pathogenesis such as decreasing intestinal permeability, inhibiting pathogenic bacteria growth, increasing the activity of alcohol metabolism enzymes, modulating the adaptive immune system, and suppressing fatty acid synthesis genes. In this review, we discuss the results of in vivo and in vitro studies that have examined the use of probiotics to prevent ALD, primarily focusing on those that explore the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the activities of promising probiotic strains. The evidence presented in this review could help in screening for probiotic strains that have protective effects in ALD patients and in further elucidating the mechanisms of their actions.
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