In this study, the reliability and validity of the retrospective pre-post test were analyzed in order to solve the problem of traditional pre-post test including response shift bias. Samples of the study were 162 elementary school students who are studying at the S university gifted education center in Seoul. Before completion of the field trip, we conducted pre test of science-related attitudes. After completion of the field trip, respondents were asked to compare their responses of pre and post science-related attitudes to quantitatively analyze the commonalities and differences of the two tests. To find out more characteristics, qualitative data such as daily records and interview were also gathered and analyzed. The major results of the study are as follows. First, for the paired t-test, there was no statistically significant difference between separate pre-test scores and retrospective pre-test. There was a very high correlation between the separate pre-test scores and the retrospective pre-test. Second, there were significant differences in all seven sub-factors of science-related attitudes between the retrospective pre-test and the post-test. Third, the separate pre-test scores showed a slightly higher tendency than the retrospective pre-test scores. This suggests that the response shift bias appears when it is performed the separate pre-test in affective domain. As a result of the interview, it was found that the evaluation standards of separate pre-test did not match with those of post-test. Forth, internal consistency reliability of the retrospective pre-test was higher than that of the separate pre-test. However, there were significant differences in six factors of science-related attitudes excluding the 'social implications of science' between the separate pre-test and the post-test. Based on these results, the retrospective pre-post test design provides simplicity and convenience to both respondents and investigators, as it is done with one test. The retrospective pre-post test design can be regarded as a valid design for the self-report measurement of affective domain on a single experimental group.
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