2050년에는 증가하는 인구의 수요를 충족시키기 위해 70%의 식량이 더 필요할 것이다. 해결책 중에서는 배양육이나 청정육이 소비자를 위한 지속 가능한 대안으로 제시되고 있다. 과학자들은 줄기세포와 조직 공학 분야에서 축적된 지식과 도구를 세포 기반 고기의 개발에 활용하기 시작했다. 배양육은 몇 개의 세포로 가축 근육의 복잡한 구조를 재현하는 것이다. 세포는 배양 배지에서 배양된 후에 분열되기 시작할 것이며, 이것은 영양소와 호르몬 그리고 성장 요인을 제공한 것이다. 배양육은 도살되지 않는 것을 목표로 하기 때문에 이러한 종류의 배양에 대한 첫 번째 문제는 혈청이다. 그래서 죽은 송아지의 피로 만든 매개체를 사용하는 것은 모순이다. 그 혈청은 고가인데 배양육 생산 비용의 상당 부분을 차지한다. 배양육의 안전과 관련된 긍정적인 측면은 밀폐된 공간에서 사육되고, 비인도적 도살되는 동물로부터 생산되지 않아 발병 위험이 없어지고 예방접종, 윤리적 이슈가 필요없다는 점이다. 배양육의 생산은 환경 친화적인 것으로 제시되는데, 이는 기존의 육류 생산에 비해 온실가스를 덜 생산하고 물을 덜 소비하며 땅을 덜 사용하게 되어 있기 때문이다. 이 진전이 기존의 육류 및 육류 대체물과 비교하여 인공 육류가 경쟁력을 갖기에 충분한지 지켜볼 일이다.
By 2050, 70% more food will be needed to fulfill the demands of a growing population. Among the solutions, cultured meat or clean meat is presented as a sustainable alternative for consumers. Scientists have begun to leverage knowledge and tools accumulated in the fields of stem cell and tissue engineering in efforts aimed at the development of cell-based meat. Cultured meat has to recreate the complex structure of livestock muscles with a few cells. Cells start to divide after they are cultured in a culture medium, which provides nutrients, hormones, and growth factors. An initial problem with this type of culture is the serum used, as in vitro meat aims to be slaughter free. Thus, it is contradictory to use a medium made from the blood of dead calves. The serum is expensive and affects to a large extent the production cost of the meat. A positive aspect related to the safety of cultured meat is that it is not produced from animals raised in confined spaces and slaughtered in inhumane conditions. Thus, the risk of an outbreak is eliminated, and there is no need for vaccinations and animal welfare issues. The production of cultured meat is presented as environmentally friendly, as it is supposed to produce less greenhouse gas, consume less water, and use less land in comparison to conventional meat production.
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