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미강 첨가량에 따른 단기숙성 간장의 제조 및 특성 분석

Characteristic Analysis and Production of Short-Ripened Korean Traditional Soy Sauce Added with Rice Bran

초록

미강은 우수한 영양과 기능적 가치를 함유하고 있지만 식미를 떨어뜨리고 저장성이 매우 낮아 효과적인 활용에 어려움을 갖고 있다. 따라서 간장의 원재료인 대두와의 혼합을 통한 다양한 맛 추구와 전분 및 단백 분해력이 높은 균주를 활용해 낱알형태의 콩알메주를 제조해 총 질소 함량의 증가를 통하여 약 12개월의 간장 제조 기간을 약 1개월로 단축하고자 콩알메주와 미강을 5:5, 7:3, 9:1, 10:0의 비율로 25%의 염수에 담구고 발효하면서 특성을 비교하였다. pH의 변화는 발효 0일 평균 pH 5.82에서 2주간 발효 후 pH는 평균 6.01로 큰 변화를 보이지 않았다. 당도는 초기 $21{\sim}22^{\circ}Brix$에서 발효가 진행됨에 따라 제조한 간장 모두 $30{\sim}32^{\circ}Brix$로 높아졌고, 염도 또한 발효기간 중 모든 실험구에서 20% 이하로 일정 수준을 유지하며 큰 변화를 보이지 않았다. 총 질소의 경우 발효 2주차에 1.62%로 9:1과 10:0 비율이 가장 높은 함량을 보여주었고, 아미노태 질소 함량은 비율별 실험구에서 48.02~62.95 mg%으로 발효기간에 따라 증가 하였으며, 발효 2주 후에는 448.84~625.52 mg%를 나타냈다. 바이오제닉 아민 중 히스타민과 티라민 함량은 앞서 보고된 일반 전통간장(히스타민; 225.9 mg/kg, 티라민; 241.6 mg/kg) 및 양조간장(히스타민; 129.8 mg/kg, 티라민; 594.5 mg/kg)에 비해 본 연구에서 제조한 간장이 히스타민 35.85~72.81 mg/kg, 티라민 41.04~75.31 mg/kg으로 적게 함유되어 있는 것을 확인하였다. 총 유리아미노산 함량은 9:1의 비율의 처리구가 8,804.03 mg/kg으로 가장 높았으며, 구수한 맛을 내는 aspartic acid와 glutamic acid의 함량 역시 각각 504.25 mg/kg과 1,262.25 mg/kg으로 높았고, 단맛을 내는 serine과 alanine의 경우에도 각각 49.50 mg/kg과 518.75 mg/kg으로 가장 높게 나타났다. 최종적으로 관능평가 결과 총 질소, 아미노태 질소, 바이오제닉 아민, 총 유리아미노산 함량에서 모두 우수한 결과를 보였던 9:1의 비율로 제조한 간장의 기호도가 가장 높게 나타났다.

Abstract

Rice bran contains both excellent nutritional value and functional advantages. Its utilization is limited due to reducing texture and low storage. To satisfy various tastes, Bacillus spp. having high amylase and protease activities were selected. Using the strains, we made whole grain soybean Meju with a reduced manufacturing period by increasing the concentration of total nitrogen. We made soy sauces with mashing ratios of soy bean and rice bran at 10:0, 9:1, 7:3, and 5:5, and then compared their physiochemical properties. After 2 weeks of fermentation, the sugar content increased from 21~22% to 30~32%. However, pH and salinity showed no differences. At a ratio of 9:1, total nitrogen, amino nitrogen content, and total free amino acid contents were the highest at 1.62%, 652.52 mg%, and 8,804.03 mg/kg, respectively, compared to other mashing ratios of soy bean and rice bran. Especially, the contents of aspartic and glutamic acid, which increase delicate flavoring, were higher in our soy sauce compared to those of general traditional soy sauce and brewed soy sauce, which were 504.25 and 1,262.25 mg/kg, respectively. Serine and alanine, which are related to sweet taste, were present at 49.50 and 518.75 mg/kg, respectively, which were the highest among all mixing ratios, at a ratio of 9:1. Compared to general traditional soy sauce and brewed soy sauce, the contents of histamine and tyramine among biogenic amines decreased to 35.85 and 41.04 mg/kg, respectively. Finally, a soy bean and rice bran mixing ratio of 9:1 was determined to be the optimal mixing ratio in the sensory evaluation.

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