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논문 상세정보

초록

코로나바이러스감염증-19(COVID-19)는 SARS-CoV-2에 의해 발병된다. 지금까지 인간에게 감염되는 7 가지 종류의 코로나 바이러스가 보고되었다. 그 중, HCoV-229E, HCoV-OC43, HCoV-NL63, 그리고 HCoV-HKU1 등 4종류의 코로나바이러스는 감기와 같은 단순 호흡기 질환을 유발한다고 보고되었다. 반면, SARS-CoV는 2002년에, MERS-CoV는 2012년에 각각 대유행을 일으킨 바 있다. 가장 최근에는 2019년 12월 중국 우한에서 처음 보고된 SARS-CoV-2가 전세계적인 대유행의 원인이 되고 있다. 이러한 SARS-CoV-2를 진단하고, 치료하고, 예방하기 위해서는 신속 정확한 진단키트, 치료제, 그리고 안전한 백신의 개발의 필수적으로 요구된다. 이러한 강력한 도구들을 개발하기 위해서는 SARS-CoV-2의 표현형, 유전자형, 그리고 생활주기 등의 연구가 선행되어야 한다. SARS-CoV-2의 진단기술은 현재 크게 두가지의 큰 분야인 분자진단과 면역혈청학적 진단으로 구분할 수 있다. 분자진단의 경우 SARS-CoV-2의 유전체를 대상으로 하며, 면역혈청학적 진단은 SARS-CoV-2의 항원 단백질 혹은 SARS-CoV-2에 대한 항체를 대상으로 한다. 본 총설에서는 SARS-CoV-2의 표현형, 유전체 구조, 그리고 유전자 발현에 대해서 정리하고, SARS-CoV-2에 대한 다양한 진단 기술 등에 대한 기초지식을 제공하고자 한다.

Abstract

Coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) is caused by SARS-CoV-2 (Severe Acute Respiratory SyndromeCoronavirus 2). To date, seven coronaviruses that can infect humans were reported. Among them, infections with four coronavirus strains (HCoV-229E, HCoV-OC43, HCoV-NL63, and HCoV-HKU1) resulted in mild symptoms such as common cold, whereas SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV caused severe symptoms and epidemics in 2002 and 2012, respectively. In the most recent, SARS-CoV-2 was first reported in Wuhan, China in December 2019 and became a notorious cause of the ongoing global pandemics. To diagnose, treat, and prevent COVID-19, the development of rapid and accurate diagnostic tools, specific therapeutic drugs, and safe vaccines essentially are required. In order to develop these powerful tools, it is prerequisite to understand a phenotype, a genotype, and life cycle of SARS-CoV-2. Diagnostic techniques have been developing rapidly around world and many countries take the fast track system to accelerate approval. Approved diagnostic devices are rapidly growing facing to urgent demand to identify carriers. Currently developed commercial diagnostic devices are divided into mainly two categories: molecular assay and serological & immunological assay. Molecular assays begins the reverse transcription step following polymerase chain reaction or isothermal amplification. Immunological assay targets SARS-CoV-2 antigen or anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody of samples. In this review, we summarize the phenotype, genome structure and gene expression of SARS-CoV-2 and provide the knowledge on various diagnostic techniques for SARS-CoV-2.

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  1. 1. 허성민, 양지연 2021. "텍스트 분석을 이용한 코로나19 관련 국내 논문의 주제 및 감성에 관한 융합 연구" 한국융합학회논문지 = Journal of the Korea Convergence Society, 12(4): 31~42 

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