개념 정리도 되지 않은 채, 언론과 업계에서는 메타버스에 대한 다양한 논의가 진행 중이다. 스티븐슨(Neal Stephenson)의 소설 '스노우 크래쉬(Snow Crash, 1992)'에서 용어가 처음 사용된 이래로, 미국의 미래가속화연구재단(Acceleration Studies Foundation: ASF)이 2007년 메타버스 개념을 처음 정리했지만 이후 메타버스는 오랫동안 주목을 받지 못했다. 그러나 2020년 가을 엔비디아(NVIDIA)가 실시간 3D 시각화 협업 플랫폼 '옴니버스(Omniverse)'를 소개하며 제2의 인터넷으로 메타버스를 설명하고, 로블록스(Roblox)가 기업공개(IPO)를 하며 자사의 서비스를 메타버스로 설명하면서, 메타버스는 현실과 가상의 경계를 넘나드는 새로운 세상으로 인식하게 됐다. 이 연구는 어느새 미디어와 콘텐츠를 넘어 새로운 삶의 공간으로 그려지는 메타버스에 대한 다양한 논의를 정리하고, 메타버스에 대한 새로운 정의를 제안하고자 한다. 메타버스의 의미를 설명하기 위해서 ASF가 제안한 두 개의 축과 네 개의 시나리오를 중심으로 가상세계, 거울세계, 증강현실, 라이프로깅의 의미를 다양한 연구를 통해 연구를 통해 정리한 후에, 메타버스 설명의 문제점을 비판하고 대안으로 인간 중심, 사용자 중심의 메타버스 정의로 인간 커뮤니케이션, 현실, 비현실 경험, 그리고 확장현실을 제안하며, 메타버스에 대한 재개념화를 시도했다.
This article reviews previous literature on the metaverse and attempts to provide a refined definition for this phenomenon. Metaverse has recently been in the spotlight among discussions by the industry and the media while a consensus on the exact definition of metaverse is yet to be determined. Since Neal Stephenson first coined the term metaverse in his novel "Snow Crash" in 1992, the Acceleration Studies Foundation (ASF) was the first to analyze the concept of metaverse in 2007. While ASF's effort did not receive much spotlight it may have deserved, metaverse gained much attention in the fall of 2020 when NVIDIA announced its real-time simulation and collaboration platform for 3D production named "Omniverse" as a next-generation alternative for the Internet along with Roblox defining its service as metaverse during its IPO. Since then, metaverse has been commonly recognized as a world where we can cross over reality and virtuality. Based on the two axes and four scenarios proposed by the ASF, we review the literature across four realms as follows - virtual reality, mirror world, augmented reality, and lifelogging. Then, we examine the issues with the existing definition of metaverse and propose an alternative explanation by focusing on human behavior and user experience. Finally, we reassess the concept of metaverse and incorporate human communication, reality-based and virtual-based activities, and eXtended reality as elements to properly define metaverse.
Ahn, S. (2011). "Mirror worlds creation technology." Robot and Human, 8(4), 17-25.
Azuma, R. T. (1997). "A survey of augmented reality." Presence: Teleoperators and virtual environments, 6(4), 355-385.
Azuma, R., Baillot, Y., Behringer, R., Feiner, S., Julier, S. & MacIntyre, B. (2001). "Recent advances in augmented reality." IEEE computer graphics and applications, 21(6), 34-47.
Bae, Y. (2012). "A study on the Diffusion of Life Log and the Right to be Forgotten." Internet and Information Security, 3(4), 86-99.
Biocca, F. (1992). "Communication within virtual reality: Creating a space for research." Journal of Communication, 42(4), 5-22. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1460-2466.1992.tb00810.x
Biocca, F. (1997). "The cyborg's dilemma: Progressive embodiment in virtual environments." Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 3(2). https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1083-6101.1997.tb00070.x
Blascovich, J. (2002). "Social influence within immersive virtual environments." In R. Schroeder (Ed.), The social life of avatars: Presence and interaction in shared virtual environments (pp. 127-145). London, UK: Springer-Verlag.
Caudell, T. P. & Mizell, D. W. (1992). Augmented reality: An application of heads-up display technology to manual manufacturing processes. In System Sciences, 1992. Proceedings of the Twenty-Fifth Hawaii International Conference on(Vol. 2, pp. 659-669). IEEE.
Cho, W. (2020). "Files that are not used by 52% of the total. Data cleanup is competitive." Maeil Economics, July 9. https://www.mk.co.kr/news/business/view/2020/07/702088 (Retrieved on July 15, 2021).
Chuah, S. H.-W. (2018). "Why and who will adopt extended reality technology? Literature review, synthesis, and future research agenda. Literature Review, Synthesis, and Future Research Agenda, December 13.
Chung (2021). Digital transformation in content business. Seoul: Nexus.
Chung, D. (2017). "User-based theories and practices on virtual reality." Informatization Policy, 24(1), 3-29.
Chung, D. (2018). "The debate on net neutrality: Evidences, issues and implications." Informatization Policy, 25(1), 3-29.
Castelfranchi, C., Piunti, M., Ricci, A. & Tummolini, L. (2012). AmI systems as agent-based mirror worlds: bridging humans and agents through stigmergy. In Agents and ambient intelligence (pp. 17-31). IOS Press.
Daft, R. & Lengel, R. (1986). "Organizational information requirements, media richness and structural design." Management Science, 32: 554-571.
Deloitte. (2017). "Meet manufacturing's digital twin." WSJ. August 9. https://deloitte.wsj.com/articles/meet-manufacturings-digital-twin-1502251346 (Retrieved on June 1, 2021).
Eshkenazi, A. (2019). "Real benefits from digital twins." ASCM. September 21. https://www.ascm.org/ascm-insights/scm-now-impact/real-benefits-from-digital-twins/ (Retrieved on July 15, 2021).
Fast-Berglund, A., Gong, L. & Li, D. (2018). "Testing and validating Extended Reality(xR) technologies in manufacturing." Procedia Manufacturing, 25, 31-38.
Fox, J., Ahn, S. J., Janssen, J. H., Yeykelis, L., Segovia, K. Y. & Bailenson, J. N. (2015). "Avatars versus agents: a meta-analysis quantifying the effect of agency on social influence." Human-Computer Interaction, 30(5), 401-432.
Gelernter, D. (1992). Mirror worlds. NY: Oxford University Press.
Gurrin, C., Smeaton, A. F. & Doherty, A. R. (2014). "Lifelogging: Personal big data." Foundations and trends in information retrieval, 8(1), 1-125.
Han, H. (2008). "A study on typology of virtual world and its development in metaverse." Digital Contents Society, 9(2), 317-323.
IBM. (2019). Digital twin: Bridging the physical-digital divide - watson IoT blog. IBM Business Operations Blog. February 27. https://www.ibm.com/blogs/internet-of-things/iot-digital-twin-enablers/ (Retrieved on July 22, 2021).
Lee, K. M. (2004). "Presence, explicated." Communication Theory, 14(1), 27-50. https://doi.org/10.1111/0022-4537.00153
Lengel, R. H. & Daft, R. L. (1988). "The selection of communication media as an executive skill." Academy of Management Perspectives, 2(3), 225-232.
Marr, B. (2017). "What is digital twin technology - and why is it so important?" Forbes. March 6. https://www.forbes.com/sites/bernardmarr/2017/03/06/what-is-digital-twin-technology-and-why-is-it-so-important/?sh156a20cd2e2a (Retrieved on July 11, 2021).
Mehrabian, A. (1971). Silent messages. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
Milgram, P. & Kishino, F. (1994). "A taxonomy of mixed reality visual displays." IEICE TRANSACTIONS on Information and Systems, 77(12), 1321-1329.
Nass, C. & Moon, Y. (2000). "Machines and mindlessness: Social responses to computers." Journal of Social Issues, 56(1), 81-103. https://doi.org/10.1111/0022-4537.00153
Negri, E. (2017). "A review of the roles of digital twin in CPS-based production systems." Procedia Manufacturing, 11, 939-948.
Nomoko. (2020). "The era of digital twins and the mirror world." Medium. May 5. https://nomoko.medium.com/the-era-of-digital-twins-and-the-mirror-world-82b33e3e3d46 (Retrieved on July 23, 2021).
Noh, K., Joo, Y. & Lee, H. (2021). "Where have you been?" Eugene Investment. March, 10. https://www.eugenefn.com/common/files/amail//20210310_B45_kyoungkt_609.pdf (Retrieved on July 5, 2021). https://www.eugenefn.com/common/files/amail//20210310_B45_kyoungkt_609.pdf (검색일: 2021.07.05.)}
NVIDIA (2021.). GTC 2021 Keynote with NVIDIA CEO Jensen Huang [Video]. YouTube. https://youtu.be/eAn_oiZwUXA(2021. 4. 12.)
Roblox Corporation (2020). "Registration statement on form S-1 - SEC.gov." November 19. https://www.sec.gov/Archives/edgar/data/1315098/000119312520 298230/d87104ds1.htm (Retrieved on July 12, 2021).
Rogers, E. M. (2003). Diffusion of innovations. New York: Free Press.
Rouillard, J (2008). Contextual QR codes. In 2008 The Third International Multi-Conference on Computing in the Global Information Technology (iccgi 2008) (pp. 50-55). IEEE.
Seo, S. (2008). "A study on R&D trends and prospects of Metaverse." Journal of The Korean Society for Computer Game, 12, 15-23.
Silver, N. (2012). The signal and the noise: why so many predictions fail-but some don't. NY: Penguin.
Smart, J. M., Cascio, J. & Paffendorf, J. (2007). Metaverse roadmap overview. CA: Acceleration Studies Foundation. http://www.metaverseroadmap.org/overview/index.html (Retrieved on July 15, 2021).
Stein, S. (2021). Mark Zuckerberg on Facebook's VR future: New sensors on Quest Pro, fitness and a metaverse for work. CNET, May 7. https://www.cnet.com/features/mark-zuckerberg-on-facebook-vr-future-new-sensors-on-quest-profitness-and-a-metaverse-for-work/ (Retrieved on June 23, 2021).
Stephenson, N. (1993). Snow Crash. New York: Bantam Books.
Steuer, J. (1992). "Defining virtual reality: Dimensions determining telepresence." Journal of Communication, 42(4), 73-93. https://doi.org/doi:10.1111/j.1460-2466.1992.tb00812.x
Wyckoff, C. W. (1962). "An experimental extended response film." SPIE Newsletter, 16-20. y