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요양시설 거주 노인의 에너지와 영양소 섭취 실태 및 식품선호도 조사

Study on Energy and Nutrient Intake and Food Preference of the Elderly in Care Facilities

Abstract

Objectives: The purpose of this study was to assess energy and nutritional intake and investigate the preference for food and cooking methods of the residents in elderly care facilities. Methods: Data were collected from 72 residents (10 males and 62 females) aged ${\geq}70$ years in elderly care facilities using questionnaires, food photographs for estimating dietary intake and records for daily physical activity. Results: Average age of the study participants was 85.0 years and 41, 36 and 8 had dementia, hypertension and diabetes mellitus, respectively. 15%, 65% and 19% of subjects were physically mobile, enervated, and immobile, respectively. Daily energy intake was 1360.2 kcal in men and 1378.0 kcal in women, which were 68.0% and 86.1% of the estimated energy requirement (EER) of dietary reference intake for Koreans (KDRI) for ${\geq}75$ year old individuals, respectively. Estimated energy expenditure (EEE) of subjects calculated using formula from KDRI was 1361.9 kcal and EER calculated using estimated daily physical activity (EDPA) was 1232.9 kcal. Energy intake and EEE from KDRI were higher than EER from EDPA. Dietary intake of dietary fiber, calcium, potassium, zinc, vitamin $B_2$, niacin, vitamin C were lower, and protein, phosphorous, iron, sodium, vitamin A, vitamin $B_1$, vitamin $B_6$, vitamin E were higher than the corresponding ones of KDRI. Subjects liked meats, fishes and shellfish, and fruits, while subjects disliked milk, seaweeds and salted fish and salted vegetables. Cooked rice, soybean paste soup, beef, cooked sliced radish strip, and yogurt were favorite foods, with steam being a favorite cooking method. Subjects considered nutrition as the most important factor for improving food service quality. Conclusions: Results of this study could be utilized for improving food-service for the residents in elderly care facilities, and provide a basis for setting reference intake of energy and nutrients of the elderly having very low activity levels.

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